Solar system, which is our planet Earth consists of a Central star – the Sun, the eight completely different planets and other elements of space, such as a belt of meteorites and moons. Previously, the planets were considered nine, but the decision of the International astronomical Union, Pluto was listed dwarf planets.
More about the eighth planet
Last farthest planet from the Sun is Neptune. It is called the blue planet because the surface of the object covered with deep oceans of water and gases (major of them – helium, hydrogen, methane). Available methane due to the absorption of the red part of the spectrum of sunlight and the reflection of the blue color of the planet in this color. For this reason, the eighth planet got its name because of Neptune in Ancient Rome was called the God of the sea.
- The distance from the Sun to Neptune is about 4.5 million kilometers. If you could fly to him on an airplane at a speed of 3000 km / h, then it would take about 170 years to overcome this distance.
- Year (as we understand it), that is, the time in which planet revolves around the Sun, lasts 165 times longer than on our planet. But the day (rotation around its own axis) are two minutes to 16 hours.
- Conditions. Assume that on the surface of the planet are raging very high wind, the speed of which can reach two thousand kilometers per hour. As for the temperature, i.e. the temperature data the top edge of the cloud, its value is about -210 C. it is Clear that a life such as we know it, impossible in this environment.
- Around the planet has six rings, as well as those that have a Saturn, just not as pronounced. Also found 14 satellites, the brightest satellite of the planet Neptune is Triton. About its features and will be discussed later.
Data that are known to mankind about Neptune, largely helped to collect "Voyager 2"
NASA launched in 1977, two object – space probes “Voyager-1 and Voyager-2”. The original purpose was not to explore the distant planet, I was hoping that the probes will be able to achieve even Uranium, not to mention Neptune. But in January 1989 the first images from a distance of 310 million miles, and by August 1989, Voyager approached the planet at 4900 km. With it was discovered not a single satellite of Neptune, and six. Also there have been a number of pictures of the planet and its satellite, the calculated different characteristics (type, weight, atmospheric density, composition, pressure, surface, temperature at the surface and in the upper layers).
Triton is the largest moon of Neptune
This facility was opened in 1846, among the first 14 satellites of Neptune, is the opening made by the British astronomer William Lassel, on which account also opening satellites Hyperion, Umbriel and Ariel. And this in the nineteenth century, when there was no such technology as of now. Astronomer personally built telescopes that were able to contemplate the night sky.
Back to the Triton. Scientists have calculated that it is possible weight is 2,14х10 22. For comparison, the weight of the Earth is 597,36х10 22. If you imagine the Earth as a small five-pound melon, Triton next to it will be like the cherry with a weight of 7-8 grams.
It is assumed that Triton consists of a stone core (diameter - 2000 km), covered with a layer of frozen water with an admixture of rock by 75%. Atmosphere - nitrogen with an admixture of methane.
Triton is the only satellite of Neptune, which moves in the opposite direction to the rotational direction. Put forward the theory that Neptune was "snatched" Triton of the dual system.
The same “Voyager 2” made the discovery, which surprised scientists. At this distance from the Sun on the Triton there was energy for... geysers. Located ten active nitrogen geysers that rise perpendicular to the surface to a height of eight kilometres, and then creeping parallel to the surface in the form of tailings with a length of 150 km. Scientists have attributed this to the seasonal heating by the Sun, as at the time of the approach of Voyager the side where the data is located the geysers, has been in the lighting hundred years.
Distance from Neptune to his companion equal to 354 760 km. For comparison, the earth's satellite, the Moon is 384,467 km, which in astronomical terms is about the same. Fully pass through the orbit of Neptune's satellite makes in 5.9 terrestrial days. By the way, there is another interesting moon of Neptune, called Nereid. Its orbit is very elongated
Interesting points and facts
- was discovered 17 days after the discovery of the planet Neptune itself;
- one of the five objects of the solar system, where volcanic activity is observed;
- the only satellite in the solar system that moves against the rotation of its planet;
- the temperature of the ice covered by Triton, Neptune's satellite, is -240 ° C;
- the relief of the satellite has in places a unique structure, similar to the peel of melon; in addition, there is a place for huge cracks, and flat spaces, and mountain formations.