Ticks are arachnid little predators that go hunting in the warm season. They attack people and animals in the spring and in the first half of the summer. Usually this happens in a forest or parkland. Symptoms after a tick bite in a person can manifest themselves in different ways, it all depends on the insect: it is contagious or not.
Many people mistakenly think that dangerous insects fall on them from the trees. But this is not so. Ticks live in the soil. When it gets warm, they get to the surface and climb to the top of the grass or shrubs - no more than 1.5 meters from the ground. Sitting on a branch, they wait for their prey. A person who passes by, clings limbs or clothing plant - the insect safely migrates to his body. For children and animals, insects are easier to attack, since they are significantly lower in height. On such small specimens, the mites can fall from above, widely spreading the legs. But flying and jumping like fleas, insects can not.
Symptoms after a tick bite in a person do not immediately manifest: he will walk for a long time, enjoying good weather, until he notices the problem that has arisen. Ticks are most active at a temperature of +20 ° C, ideal humidity for them is 90%. They like to attack in April-May, September-October, more often in cloudy weather, but during the heat they are inactive and lazy.
Insects love to "settle" in the folded areas of the skin - in the neck, head, armpits, navel, inguinal zone. Before they bite, they can crawl around the body for an hour, looking for a secluded place. Having found it, the insect with its thin proboscis with teeth punches the skin, finds the capillary and sucks it. The male, having absorbed a little blood, disappears. But the female can remain attached to your body for 10 days: when saturated, it greatly increases in size.
What are the symptoms after a tick bite in a person? The first thing you can notice is a change on the skin. The lesion site looks like a dotted trail with mild redness. This is an allergic reaction to the saliva of the parasite. If a person has an individual intolerance to the enzyme from the life of an insect, then around the bite there may be a large reddening - up to 10 centimeters in diameter, which in especially severe cases passes into a strong edema. Typically, the tick bite in different people is very different. This is influenced by many factors: the type of insect, the length of his stay on the body, the age and health of a person.
A person does not feel a tick bite, since it is absolutely painless. Moreover, staying on the epidermis of an unexpected guest can not be noticed at all until he falls off himself. In most cases, people detect a parasite when it has already increased greatly in volume - a suspicion is caused by a small knob, which when pressed can slightly ache a bit or itch.
If there is an allergy to the saliva of an insect, the first symptoms after a tick bite in a person will be as follows: severe headache, fever, red rash, edema, muscle weakness and numbness of the limbs. It's hard for a bitten person to walk, even with a little physical activity, he has an exasperating breathlessness. The person does not want to eat, constantly feels tired, emaciated, he has lethargy and drowsiness. In severe cases, paralysis occurs. If the insect itself has fallen off, at the site of the bite you can feel the burning and itching, which take place within a week. Sometimes there is a strong local pain - often from the bites of some types of so-called soft mites.
Symptoms of borreliosis
Sometimes mites can be carriers of Lyme disease. The disease is also called borreliosis. Its incubation period ranges from one to two weeks, after which the disease quickly and acutely begins to manifest itself. Symptoms of borreliosis after a tick bite in a person are: chills, high fever, severe intoxication, nausea, vomiting, enlarged lymph nodes. A typical manifestation of Lyme disease is the stiffness of the neck and muscles.
At the site of the bite, reddening of the annular form is formed. This is the so-called migratory erythema, which is rapidly expanding in all directions from the epicenter. Its edges have a more distinct outline and bright color, they rise slightly and rise above the pale and depressed middle. On this part of the body, a person feels itching and a little pain. He may have other skin rashes, as well as conjunctivitis. Sometimes the patient has signs of starting meningitis.
The main stages of the disease
Symptoms of borreliosis change. The only constant sign of the disease is erythema. If the first stage of the disease is characterized by all of the above manifestations in the form of chills, fever, muscle spasms and increased intoxication, in the second they are aggravated and lead to irreversible consequences. After 30 days of the initial phase, the next phase of the disease occurs: in patients developing meningitis or encephalitis, there is stiff neck muscles, photophobia, memory impairment, insomnia, weakness, emotional instability. Often the facial nerve is affected, which leads to facial asymmetry, hearing loss and increased tear.
Symptoms after a tick bite in a person include and damage to the peripheral nerves. Children may experience severe complications in the CNS. The causative agent of borreliosis spreads throughout the body and attacks not only the brain and nerves, but also the heart muscle. The patient can feel severe shortness of breath, chest pain, constant arrhythmia. Often, he is diagnosed with pericarditis or myocarditis.
Signs of a bite of an encephalitis tick
The insect that carries this disease is no less dangerous. Symptoms after a bite of an encephalitis tick in a man develop within the framework of two stages. The first signs can usually be noticed only a week after the incident. A person complains of fatigue, severe headaches, fever and muscle pain. He can be too irritable, even aggressive. Or vice versa, sluggish, inactive, indifferent to everything that is happening.
A similar condition lasts about 10 days, after which the second phase begins. The disease progresses only in a third of cases, in other people immunity independently neutralizes the causative agent of the disease, and they are completely restored. Those who are unlucky are confronted with other, more dangerous consequences of the bite and related complications and problems. Typically, the patient is experiencing a malfunction in the central nervous system, developing such diseases as meningitis and encephalitis.
Symptoms of encephalitis
If the tick does not disappear, you need to carefully remove it and take it to the laboratory. There he will be checked for the possible presence of deadly viruses. These measures are very important, because after infection for 72 hours, physicians will have time to introduce the so-called anti-immunoglobulin serum - immunoglobulin. If the patient does not turn in time, the symptoms of encephalitis begin to develop. In humans, after a tick bite, which carries this disease, the temperature rises rapidly, he complains of nausea and vomiting, severe headache. In some cases, he loses the ability to express his thoughts, his limbs convulsions, you can notice the disturbance of the mental state.
Symptoms of encephalitis in a person after a tick bite can be quite unusual. Recently, scientists have found that these patients sometimes have a temporary allergy to red meat and dairy products. After carrying out more than one study, they found that a person infected with encephalitis can safely eat any bird, but if he touches beef or pork, his body is immediately covered with urticaria, a strong edema develops. The allergic reaction becomes a consequence of the antigen, which, together with the saliva of the insect, enters the body.
How to pull a tick?
Symptoms after a tick bite in a person are noticeable almost immediately. Once you find something wrong after visiting the forest or park, carefully inspect your body. When a parasite is discovered, the first thing you need to do is to gently get rid of it. There are several ways to do this. The first is to grab the insect by the head with tweezers and slowly unscrew it clockwise. For the same purpose, it is possible to use an improvised silk made of string. The second way is to press the ring against the skin around the mite and fill the space with sunflower oil. After such manipulation, the parasite will feel oxygen starvation and will fall away.
Knowing which symptoms after a tick bite in a person can occur, you can protect yourself from many troubles, including borreliosis and encephalitis. But it is better, of course, to follow preventive measures. In order not to bring home parasites on your body, for a walk in the wooded area, on the river or in the field, put on your clothes. Examine the body after such promenades. In addition, it is possible to make special vaccinations against the corresponding diseases 2 weeks before the season of activating the ticks.