Ticks are spider-like small predators that go hunting in the warm season. They attack people and animals in the spring and in the first half of summer. This usually happens in a forest or park area. Symptoms after a tick bite in humans can manifest themselves in different ways, it all depends on the insect: whether it is infectious or not.
Many people mistakenly think that dangerous bugs fall on them from trees. But it is not. Ticks live in the soil. When it becomes warm, they get to the surface and climb to the top of the grass or shrubs - no more than 1.5 meters from the ground. Sitting on a branch, they lie in wait for their prey. A person who passes by touches a plant with limbs or clothes - an insect safely migrates to its body. It is easier to attack bugs for children and animals, as they are significantly shorter. On such small individuals, mites can fall from above, with their legs wide apart. But insects do not know how to fly and jump like fleas.
Symptoms after a tick bite in a person do not appear immediately: he will walk for a long time, enjoying the good weather, until he notices the problem that has formed. Ticks are most active at a temperature of +20 ° C, the ideal humidity for them is 90%. They like to attack in April – May, September – October, more often in cloudy weather, but during the heat they are not mobile and lazy.
Insects adore “settling down” in folded skin areas - around the neck, head, underarms, navel, inguinal zone. Before they bite, they can crawl through the body for an hour, looking for a secluded place. Having found it, the insect with its thin proboscis with teeth pierces the skin, finds a capillary and sticks to it. The male, having absorbed a little blood, disappears. But the female can remain attached to your body for 10 days: saturated, it greatly increases in size.
What are the symptoms after a tick bite in a person? The first thing to notice is the change on the skin. The damage site looks like a dotted trail with moderate redness. This is an allergic reaction to the parasite's saliva. If a person has an individual intolerance to the enzyme from the life of an insect, then a large reddening can occur around the bite - up to 10 centimeters in diameter, which in severe cases turns into severe edema. Typically, tick bites vary from person to person. This is influenced by many factors: the type of insect, the duration of its stay on the body, the age and the state of human health.
A person does not feel the tick bite, as it is absolutely painless. Moreover, the stay on the epidermis of an unexpected guest can not be noticed at all until he falls off himself. In most cases, people discover a parasite when it has already greatly increased in volume - a small lump suspicion causes it, which, if pressed, may ache a little or itch.
If you are allergic to insect saliva, the first symptoms after a tick bite in a person will be: severe headache, fever, red rash, edema, muscle weakness and numbness of the extremities. Bitten hard to walk, even with a little physical activity, he has painful shortness of breath. A person does not want to eat, constantly feels tired, haggard, he has lethargy and drowsiness. In severe cases, paralysis occurs. If the insect itself has fallen off, you may feel burning and itching at the bite site, which disappear during the week. Sometimes there is severe local pain - often from the bites of certain types of so-called soft ticks.
Symptoms of borreliosis
Sometimes ticks can carry Lyme disease. The disease is also called borreliosis. Its incubation period ranges from one to two weeks, after which the disease rapidly and sharply begins to manifest itself. Symptoms of borreliosis after a tick bite in humans are: chills, fever, severe intoxication, nausea, vomiting, swollen lymph nodes. A typical manifestation of Lyme disease is stiffness of the neck and muscles.
At the site of the bite, a ring-shaped redness is formed. This is the so-called erythema migrans, which is rapidly expanding in all directions from the epicenter. Its edges have a clearer contour and bright color, they rise a little and rise above the paler and depressed middle. On this part of the body, the person feels itchy and a little pain. He may have other skin rashes as well as conjunctivitis. Sometimes the patient has signs of beginning meningitis.
Main stages of the disease
The symptoms of borreliosis are changing. The only permanent symptom of the disease is erythema. If the first stage of the disease is characterized by all the above manifestations in the form of chills, fever, muscle spasms and increased intoxication, then in the second they are aggravated and lead to irreversible consequences. After 30 days of the initial stage, the next phase of the disease begins: patients develop meningitis or encephalitis, stiffness of the neck muscles, photophobia, memory impairment, insomnia, weakness, emotional instability are observed. Often, the facial nerve is affected, leading to facial asymmetry, hearing impairment and increased tearing.
Symptoms after a tick bite in a person include peripheral nerve damage. Children may experience severe complications in the work of the central nervous system. The causative agent of borreliosis spreads throughout the body and attacks not only the brain and nerves, but also the heart muscle. The patient may feel severe shortness of breath, chest pain, persistent arrhythmia. Often he is diagnosed with pericarditis or myocarditis.
Signs of an encephalitis tick bite
The insect carrying this disease is no less dangerous. Symptoms after the bite of an encephalitic tick in humans develop in two stages. The first signs can usually be noticed a week after the incident. A person complains of fatigue, severe headaches, fever and muscle pain. He may be too irritable, even aggressive. Or vice versa, sluggish, inactive, indifferent to everything that happens.
A similar condition lasts about 10 days, after which the second phase begins. The disease progresses only in a third of cases, in other people the immune system neutralizes the pathogen that has entered the body, and they are fully restored. Those who are unlucky are faced with other, more dangerous consequences of the bite and related complications and problems. Usually, the patient has a malfunction of the central nervous system, and diseases such as meningitis and encephalitis develop.
Symptoms of encephalitis
If the tick has not disappeared, you need to carefully remove it and take it to the laboratory. There he will be checked for the possible presence of deadly viruses. These measures are very important, because after infection for 72 hours, doctors will have time to introduce the so-called anti-disease serum - immunoglobulin. If the patient has not addressed in time, he will develop symptoms of encephalitis. A person after a tick bite, which suffers this disease, quickly rises in temperature, he complains of nausea and vomiting, severe headache. In some cases, he loses the ability to express his thoughts, his limbs convulse convulsions, you can see mental disorders.
Symptoms of encephalitis in a person after being bitten by a tick may be quite unusual. Recently, scientists have found that these patients sometimes have a temporary allergy to red meat and dairy products. Having conducted more than one study, they discovered that an infected with encephalitis can safely eat any bird, but if it touches beef or pork, as soon as its body becomes covered with urticaria, strong edema develops. An allergic reaction becomes a consequence of the antigen, which along with the insect's saliva enters the body.
How to pull tick?
Symptoms after a tick bite in a person are noticeable almost immediately. As soon as you find something wrong after visiting a forest or a park, carefully examine your body. When the parasite is detected, the first thing you need to do is to carefully get rid of it. This can be done in several ways. The first is to grab an insect by the head with tweezers and slowly unscrew it clockwise. With the same purpose you can use an improvised snare made from a string. The second way is to press the ring against the skin around the tick and fill the space with sunflower oil. After such a manipulation, the parasite will feel oxygen starvation and will disappear.
Knowing what symptoms a person can have after a tick bite can cause you to protect yourself from many troubles, including borreliosis and encephalitis. But it is better, of course, to comply with preventive measures. In order not to bring home parasites on your body, for a walk in a wooded area, on a river or in a field, put on closed clothes. Examine the body after such promenades. In addition, you can make special vaccinations against the relevant diseases for 2 weeks before the start of the season of activation of ticks.