With the advent of the baby, not only great happiness, love, and care come to the family, but also the inalienable feelings of anxiety and fear. No matter how future parents are prepared for the birth and upbringing of their little miracle, they cannot do without outside help, especially medical care.
In the maternity hospital, where there is a medical staff around the clock, observation and counseling, mother and relatives feel confident, but only they should leave the walls of this institution and be left alone with the child, panic, uncertainty and certain fears may occur. Therefore, there is a patronage of the newborn.
After discharge from the hospital polyclinic service data about the newborn. If a family changes a residence permit or place of residence, then they must, without fail, notify themselves about their move and register with the children's polyclinic at the place of actual residence. This is necessary to enable medical professionals to patronize a newborn. A sample of the necessary documents is always in the medical institution. Young children are served regardless of their place of residence or city of birth.
Terms of patronage of newborns
The medical examination and the initial visit of medical personnel must be made in the first three days after discharge from the maternity ward and are regular during the first month. It should be noted that the doctor comes to the acquaintance and examination of the newborn together with the nurse, and later, in the absence of valid reasons, the nurse makes visits on her own. She keeps the district pediatrician informed about the state of the baby, also filling out all the necessary medical documentation.
How does patronage happen?
The first patronage of the newborn, if the baby is classified as at risk, should be performed on the first day after discharge. The first week visits are made daily, then their multiplicity decreases, and in the absence of abnormalities in the child’s development and physiological changes, subsequent visits are conducted in the third and fourth weeks of the baby’s life.
The primary patronage of the newborn has the following goals:
- acquaintance with the newborn and his family;
- health check of the baby and mother;
- assessment of living conditions and social status of the family;
- teaching mothers the basic rules of child care;
- psychological and counseling assistance to young parents.
Of course, patronage is primarily in assessing the health and development of the baby. To do this, the doctor collects a detailed history of the course of pregnancy and childbirth, possible complications and pathological conditions, risk groups and chronic diseases in parents and blood relatives, conducts a general examination of the child.
Then the doctor proceeds to direct examination of the baby. Particular attention is paid to the condition of the skin (their color, purity and the presence of any rashes, diaper rash or wounds, especially in the folds) and mucous membranes. A pediatrician assesses reflexes, weight gain, feeding characteristics, breathing and heartbeat patterns, the severity of bloating, and stool patterns. Additionally, auscultation of the lungs and heart, palpation of the abdomen, examination of the fontanel and umbilical wound are performed.
This patronage of the newborn is complemented by an inspection and mothers. Special attention is paid to the breast, and if the baby is breastfed, the correctness of the attachment and sucking activity of the baby. At the same time, recommendations are given on the nutrition of the mother.
Additionally, medical personnel may inquire about the availability of a home first aid kit and its components and, if necessary, recommend supplementing it with necessary emergency medicine and child care products.
The nurse’s patronage is not only helping the doctor and completing the routine documentation, but also working directly with the newborn and his family.
The nurse will tell and in practice will show how to properly handle the umbilical cord, clean the nose, ears and eyes, how to bathe the baby and cut the nails.
Preparing parents for patronage
Patronage of a newborn child requires the training of not only the medical staff, but also the parents themselves. Of course, no special actions are required, but it is worth buying shoe covers and a paper towel. Also stock up with disposable gloves and disinfectants and without hesitation ask to examine your baby in them and make sure that the doctor does not forget to process your phonendoscope with alcohol that you kindly offer him.
Prepare a place for easy inspection of the child. Best of all, if it is a changing table with free access to it. Equally important is good lighting in the room.
Collect all medical records and prepare a list of questions of interest to you, because when it comes to them, you might forget about what you wanted to ask.
Filling out medical records
After the inspection and consultation is completed, all necessary documentation is completed. This can be considered complete patronage of the newborn. The sample is presented below.
At the age of _______, on the ____ day of discharge from the maternity hospital No. ____, the boy (girl) from ____ pregnancy, ________ was born full-term / premature. Birth weight ______, discharge weight ______, height _______, head circumference ________. The state of the child after childbirth ______. Diagnosis __________, treatment (if performed) _____________. The baby is being fed _______________. state of the umbilical wound ______. Jaundice appeared on the ______ day, was not. Blood type and Rh factor ___________ child. Chronic maternal diseases ________________________________, father ____________________________. Contact for tuberculosis __________. The state of the mammary glands of the mother _________________________________________________________________.
General examination of the child: condition __________, body temperature ________. Skin _________________________, tissue turgor ________________, muscle tone ________________. Sclera _________, head shape ___________________, big spring _______________________, small ______________. Reflexes of the newborn _________________________________________________________. Musculoskeletal system __________________________________________________, lungs _________________________, respiratory rate ______________, auscultation __________________________, heart ____________________________, heart sounds _______________, HR ________, stomach ____________________________, liver _______________, spleen ___________, genitals _________________.
The musculoskeletal system _______________________________________________ Conclusion ______________________________________________________________
Vaccination ______________________________________________________________ Consultation on feeding ___________________________________________________________ Signature of the nurse _______________ Signature of the doctor __________________________
After the first month, an active examination at home is stopped, and parents independently have the opportunity to visit the clinic together with their baby. During the first year of life requires monthly monitoring. During the examination, the doctor assesses the child’s development (physical, neuropsychic), advises parents on the day regimen of the baby, his age needs and development stages, conducts anthropological measurements (determines weight and height, head and chest circumferences), carries out preventive measures, aimed at preventing the development of anemic conditions, rickets and other vitamin deficiencies.
Patronage of the newborn implies another important function: compliance with the vaccination schedule.
Cabinet healthy child
An integral part of successful clinical examination of infants is the presence of the so-called study of a healthy child. Thanks to his work, a young mother can get the necessary advice and knowledge about the development of her baby, the principles of a balanced diet and the timing of the introduction of complementary foods, the basic rules of hardening and the techniques of massage and preventive exercises. In this study, the necessary literature and visual aids are always sufficient, which will make it easier to understand the development processes of babies, the principles of rational nutrition, and the organization of the correct daily regimen.
Newborn patronage is not only necessary, but also a useful method of monitoring a small member of society, providing timely diagnosis of pathological conditions and preventing their development, giving knowledge and skills in caring for a baby, instilling confidence in oneself and one's actions, promoting controlled child care and saving young parents from many mistakes.