Russian education system — an area in which actively introduced various innovative concepts. Among those pedagogical management. It may seem that this phenomenon is compatible mainly with the sphere of business or politics. However, it is possible to implement in educational practice. How? What are the most notable characteristics of this concept?
The concept of pedagogical management
What is the pedagogical management in education? This term apparently refers to some processes related to the management. Traditionally, the management is commonly understood as activities performed in the business or, for example, in politics. But recently in Russia began to gain popularity in management education.
The control process assumes the existence of subject and object. This characteristic is also relevant for the phenomenon of management in education. The subject of management in this case will be employees of companies, which implemented the training programme. Object — the educational organization and the processes taking place in it. The management of the appropriate type — the improvement of the educational process, improve its efficiency, optimization, in terms of labor and financial costs of the institution in correlation with the desired results.
Management in education can be characterized by national specificity. For example, in educational institutions of the United States, he is associated with the empowerment of teachers of schools a significant amount of power, allowing to plan and optimize the learning process. In Russia, in turn, employees of educational institutions — if you talk about the state and municipal institutions – are required in the General case, to adhere to the program approved by the regional or even Federal level. As a result, the Russian management in education becomes the prerogative of the mostly private institutions. Although, of course, in some aspects of the educational process in public schools it can also be used — for example in terms of extra-curricular activities or, alternatively, optimization of budget expenditures.
Strategic factors of pedagogical management
Modern researchers believe that the pedagogical management in education is characterized by a number of factors influencing the mechanisms for its implementation. Among those:
– specificity of basic elements of management as an independent social activity
the methods employ actors management
the challenges facing a Manager in the education system
the key principles that underpin the teacher in building the appropriate management communications
functions characterizing pedagogical management
– criteria of quality management activity.
Some researchers believe that the factors of the pedagogical management, it is permissible to include the results of activities of the school staff towards the implementation of the appropriate management activity. We now investigate the factors that characterize management in the field of education, more.
The status of basic elements of the pedagogical management, of course, have its subjects and objects. The first will include employees of educational organizations in different positions. It can be school principals, their deputies, teachers. Objects of activity in the framework of pedagogical management is, in turn, students. In some cases within these categories, there may be a chain of command, whereby the subjects can temporarily acquire the status of objects — for example, if we are talking about the relationship between Director and subordinate staff of the schools.
The following element of which involves management in education is a learning process and are directly related to communication characteristic of the school — for example, teachers ' meetings. Participation in these events anyway, take all the subjects and objects of pedagogical management. The learning process is the most important element of consolidating the interests and priorities of individuals who are involved in social communication in the framework of the implementation of educational programs.
Another factor mentioned is the purpose of management. What can be caused by the implementation of pedagogical management in a particular educational institution? It all depends on the level of educational programs. So, management in vocational education implemented in colleges and universities and can be directed on increase of efficiency of development by students of various applied skills. If we are talking about the educational process in secondary schools, the implementation of appropriate management practices may be due to the need for more effective spending of budgetary funds — such as the procurement of materials, distribution of working hours.
The purpose of the application of certain management approaches may be due to the need of introducing any innovations in the education system. This initiative is often accompanied by some expected positive results. Often employing innovative methods of pedagogical management is connected with the solution of a problem which is characteristic of the educational system in General, specific training programmes or as reflecting the specificity of individual schools.
It is possible that the goal of conceptual implementation of the pedagogical management will be localized, i.e., focused on achieving results within a specific lesson, series of lessons or the curricula for a given subject. For example, if a school teacher is challenged to prepare children for the annual test, then he can plan the content of preceding lessons appropriately so that students gradually mastered the necessary skills to tackle tasks which will be most likely to attend a test.
The purpose of the implementation of the methods of pedagogical management could be the implementation of educational programmes. For example, those related to the training of children of the senior classes for the service in the armed forces. Methods of pedagogical management in this case can be focused on the optimization of schedules of the respective classes relatively basic, provided that the school curriculum, or scheduling the necessary extra-curricular activities such as combat training in the army units.
Another significant factor of the educational management methods, employ his actors. Approaches to their classification are many. Among the most common:
– economic (involving the optimization of budget expenditures in correlation with training programs)
– administrative management (through entities such pedagogical management can give orders to the objects)
– socio-psychological (requires the application of efficient algorithms for communications between subjects and objects).
As a rule, observed the methods utilized in various combinations or all at the same time.
The following element of the task Manager in education. Most often they are presented in the following list:
– to create the tools necessary to achieve the objectives
– to prepare the necessary frames
– to use the necessary resources — financial, organizational
– to introduce selected concepts of management in practice
– to perform the work efficiency.
Of course, the specified range of tasks may be expanded, complemented, specified.
Principles of pedagogical management
Fundamentals of management in education include algorithms on the basis of which formed the principles of appropriate management activities. In many ways, they are subjective, that is, each participant of the learning process may determine them on the basis of personal priorities. But it is possible to highlight General principles, widespread and practiced in the Russian pedagogical management. Examine them more.
First, it is a principle of rationalism. Manager actions in the education system should be focused primarily on improvements that can be observed in the form of specific indicators — for example, in terms of actual budgetary savings due to more efficient organization of the educational process. The teacher should create an educational program based on specific metrics and identifying those that need to improve in order of priority.
Secondly, the principle of social orientation. No matter whether you are implementing the management in preschool education, at the level of secondary schools or in universities — the activity of the teacher should be aimed at achieving public objectives. Those that are important for the local societies, as a particular class, group, course, and society in General.
Thirdly, it is the principle of stability. In the course of introducing the concepts of pedagogical management should be selected those methods that are able to provide consistent results in repeated repetition of their use in the same conditions. Of course, if we are talking about some completely new, never experienced anyone informed approaches, it is possible for a certain experiment, but it should not break the functionality established by the time social communications and structure of existing training programs.
A consistent approach to innovation
In this sense, innovation management in education should not be revolutionary. If we are talking about, say, the introduction of distance learning methods, their one-time involvement in all educational programs of the school may not be the most rational step. Should fit it only to those subjects in respect of which the appropriate communication mechanism is best suited — for example, this can relate to classes in computer science.
Another important component of the pedagogical management functions. Modern researchers have identified several such.
First of all, the function of planning. It is important part of the consistent implementation of goals and objectives set by the management of the school or any other educational institution. For example, if the purpose of the implementation of appropriate managerial concepts is a professional training, management in education can be used as a tool for constructing algorithm of its implementation, adapted to the current curricula. That is, teachers working at the school, can go to the necessary classes for retraining, while their is always someone to replace on the main workplace.
Crucial motivating function of pedagogical management. It consists in formation at students of high interest in learning. In practice, this can be expressed, for example, in the introduction of innovative concepts. Among those that require the involvement of a wide range of tools that contains management in education — distance learning. As we noted above, the appropriate format of the curriculum should be implemented in classroom practice gradually, so that the efficiency of its use was sustainable. Pedagogical management in distance education can be useful also for adaptation of students to the innovations of the educational process from the point of view of their discipline. Consider the format of passing educational programs may involve the presence of students not in the classroom, and at home or, for example, on the territory other schools, resulting in children's perceptions of the educational process may be slightly different than in the case when they learn the material in class.
Another important pedagogical function of management — controlling. Its essence is to implement a management subject, monitoring the activity of objects as in the process of implementing certain decisions and to verify their performance in fact appropriate modernization of the educational process.
Criteria of quality management
The next element of pedagogical management — quality criteria of the relevant activities. Researchers give the following list of them:
– practical effectiveness, traced on the example of concrete numbers (budget savings, improvement of mean score of academic achievement)
– the level of positive social perception of the implemented concepts (in the environment of subjects and objects of pedagogical management)
– the presence of indirect indicators of improvement of quality of educational process (for example, a greater percentage of high school graduates admitted to prestigious universities).
As we noted above, among the possible tasks, the solution of which may be operated management in education — training of specialists. In this case, the criterion of the effectiveness of relevant concepts may be the growth of interest in the teachers working in the school from other educational institutions of the city.