Russian hamlet called Paul Petrovich Romanov subjects. Its tragic fate. Since childhood, not knowing parental affection, brought up under the guidance of crowned Elizabeth, who saw him as his successor, he had spent many years in the shadow of his mother, Empress Catherine II.

Paul I: biography, facts of life

Becoming a ruler at the age of 42, he was never accepted by the environment and died at the hands of the conspirators. His reign was short - only four years he led the country.

Born Paul the First, a biography which is very interesting, in 1754, at the Summer Palace crowned his cousin, the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna, daughter of Peter I. She was his great-grandmother. Parents were Peter III (the future Emperor, who ruled very briefly) and Catherine II (overthrowing her husband, shone on the throne for 34 years).

Elizabeth had no children, but Russian throne wanted to keep the heir of the Romanov dynasty. She chose her nephew, son of his eldest sister, Anna, 14-year-old Carl, who was brought to Russia, and called Peter Fedorovich.

Separation from parents

By the time of the birth of Paul, Elizabeth's disappointed in his father. In it she didn't see the qualities that would help him become a worthy ruler. When Paul was born, the Empress decided to raise and make you my successor. Therefore, immediately after birth, the boy was surrounded by a huge staff of nurses, and parents actually removed from the child. Peter III the opportunity to see my son once a week was fine because he wasn't sure that it was his son, though Paul was officially recognized. Catherine, if at first and harbored tender feelings for the child, and later became more and more estranged from him. This is due to the fact that since birth she could see her son very rarely and only with the permission of the Empress. Besides he was born from unloved husband, a dislike which gradually moved and Paul.

Education

Studied with the future Emperor seriously. Elizabeth made up a special manual, which was spelled out the main points of learning, and was appointed tutor to the boy Nikita Ivanovich Panin, a man of extensive knowledge.

He has prepared a program of subjects which were to examine the heir. It included natural science, history, music, dance, God's law, geography, foreign languages, art, astronomy. Thanks to Panin, Pavel was surrounded by the most educated people of that time. The education of the future Emperor was given so much attention that there was even limited to the circle of his peers. To communicate with the heir was allowed only children from the noble families.

First, Paul was an apt pupil, though restless. The education he received was the best at the time. But the lifestyle of an heir was more like a barracks: rise at six in the morning and classes all day with breaks for lunch and dinner. In the evenings, he waited quite childish entertainment – balls and receptions. It is not surprising that in such an environment and deprived of parental affection, Paul First grew nervous and insecure person.

The future Emperor was so ugly. If his eldest son Alexander was considered the first handsome, the Emperor to the people with an attractive appearance could not be attributed. He had very large bulging forehead, small snub nose, slightly bulging eyes and wide lips.

Contemporaries noted that the Emperor had extraordinarily beautiful eyes. In moments of anger the face of Paul's First distorted, making it even uglier, but in a state of peace and benevolence traits it could even be called pleasant.

Living in the shadow of mother

When Paul was 8, his mother organized a coup. The result of Peter III abdicated and a week later died at Ropsha, where he was transported after the abdication. According to the official version, the cause of death was colic, but the people were persistent rumors about the murder of the deposed Emperor.

Making a coup d'etat, Catherine used the son as an opportunity to rule the country until his majority. Peter I issued a decree that the heir appointed by the reigning ruler. Therefore, Catherine could only become Regent for minor son. In fact, she since the coup was not going with anybody to share power. And so it happened that the mother and son became rivals. Paul First represented a considerable danger, since the yard was enough people who wanted to see the ruler of him, not Catherine. For him it was necessary to monitor and to suppress all attempts at independence.

In 1773, the future Emperor married the Princess Wilhelmina. First wife of Paul I, after the baptism became Natalia Alexeyevna.

He was madly in love, and she cheated on him. Two years later the wife died in childbirth, and Paul was devastated. Catherine showed him the love letters the couple with count Razumovsky, and this news completely shattered it. But the family has not had to be stopped, and in the same year, Paul was introduced to his future wife, Maria Feodorovna. She was born as the first wife of the German lands, but differed calm and gentle nature. Despite the ugliness of the future Emperor, she wholeheartedly loved her husband and gave him 10 children.

Wife of Paul the First was very different in character. If the first, Natalia Alekseevna, actively tried to participate in political life and ruled by a despotic husband, Maria Fyodorovna did not intervene in the Affairs of public administration and dealt only with family. Its pliability and lack of ambition appealed to Catherine II.

First wife Paul loved immensely. To Maria Feodorovna, he, too, has long felt a tender affection. But over time, however, the stronger their views on various issues differed, which caused the inevitable cooling. The wife preferred to live in the residence in Pavlovsk, while Paul was dearer to Gatchina, which he remade according to his own taste.

Soon he grew tired of classical beauty wife. Appeared mistress: first, Catherine Nelidova, and then Anna lopuchin. Continuing to love her husband, Maria Fyodorovna was forced sympathetic to his Hobbies.

From the first marriage of the Emperor had no children, the second brought him four boys and six girls.

Eldest sons of Paul I, Alexander and Constantine, were in a special position of Catherine II. Not trusting her son, she did the same, as at the time treated her – away grandchildren, and she engaged in their education. Son relationship went wrong a long time in politics, he adhered to opposing views and to see him with his heir, the Grand Empress didn't want to. She had planned to appoint as his successor the eldest and beloved grandson, Alexander. Of course, these intentions became known to Paul that worsened his relationship with his eldest son. He didn't trust him, and Alexander, in turn, was afraid of changeable in the mood father.

The sons of Paul First went to the mother. Tall, handsome, with a fine complexion and good physical health, they look very different from his father. Only Constantine was more noticeable traits of the parent.

The accession to the throne

In 1797 Paul I was crowned and received the Russian throne. The first thing he did after ascending the throne, ordered to remove the ashes of Peter III from the grave, to crown and reburied in one day with Catherine II in a nearby tomb. After the death of his mother he thus reunited her with her husband.

The reign of Paul the First major reforms

On the Russian throne was, in fact, a romantic and an idealist with a heavy character, which was accepted by the environment of hostility. Historians have long since revised the attitude to the reforms of Paul I and I think they are largely reasonable and beneficial for the state.

How he was illegally removed from power, induced the Emperor to revoke the decree of Peter I on the throne and issue a new one. Now the power passed through the male line from father to eldest son. A woman could occupy the throne only if the male line of the Romanoff dynasty ended.

Great attention Paul paid the First military reform. The size of the army decreased, increased training for army composition. The guard joined the people of Gatchina. The Emperor dismissed all the greenhorns that were in the army. Strict discipline and innovation has caused discontent part of the officers.

Touched reform and the peasantry. The Emperor issued a decree "On three-day corvee," which caused indignation on the part of landowners.

In the foreign policy of Russia under Paul made sharp turns – went on an unexpected rapprochement with revolutionary France and entered into a confrontation with England, his old ally.

The murder of Paul I: a chronicle of events

By 1801, the natural mistrust and suspicion of the Emperor, had acquired monstrous proportions. He didn't trust even his family, and the citizens fell out of favor for the slightest offenses.

Paul the First, Emperor and autocrat of Russia, has lived a fairly short life, full of tragic events and repeated the path of his father.

But with the last sentence do not agree! Pavel Petrovich did not go the way of Peter the Third, whom I am sincerely sorry. Peter III was incapable of running the country and abdicated, rather, Nicholas II reiterated his path. Paul the First died as a knight on the throne, refused to leave his post. His reign was bright, he made a great contribution to the development of the Russian army. in the advancement of the peasants. His foreign policy was far-sighted and consistent, he acted primarily in the interests of Russia

Sorry for him, was a good man.

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