Livestock is the second important (after crop) sector of agriculture of Russia. How well it is developed, depends largely on the welfare of the country as a whole. More recently, the farming in Russia were unprofitable. Today, thanks to introduction in production of new technologies, the situation has significantly changed for the better. Animal is divided into several important sectors and types. We'll talk about them in the article.
A bit of history
It is believed that the first to domesticate and breed wild animals and, consequently, to animal products people began in the Mesolithic, that is, in the 12th Millennium BC, the Greatest development of this activity have received little later – in the Neolithic. Archaeologists found evidence of the presence of livestock in those times the area of the Nile and of the Tigris and Euphrates. The inhabitants of the cities of Ancient Egypt were breeding large and small cattle, pigs, and camels. Partially domesticated were also geese, ducks and even cranes. A little later on in this ancient state was established, and horses.
Livestock development in the area of the Tigris and Euphrates occurred in almost the same way as in Egypt. Later this type of economic activity developed in India, China, and the Iranian plateau. At the moment, man domesticated about 40 species of animals.
There are many agricultural breeds. Almost all of them correspond to their livestock sectors. The most significant in our country are:
- Pig breeding. The main products of this livestock sector are meat and lard.
- Horse breeding. Great importance for the national economy has both pedigree breeding of horses, and productive, as well as athletic.
- Cattle. The breeding of cattle at the moment – the main branch of animal husbandry. After all, how developed is this sector depends on the degree of provision of the population with basic foodstuffs such as milk and meat. Breeding of small ruminants is also very important. From this direction of livestock are in direct proportion to such spheres of the national economy, as food (meat, milk) and light (woolen clothing and household items) industry.
- Poultry farming. This branch is responsible for providing the population with such important food products as eggs, meat, down and feather.
- Fur fur farming. Breeding of nutria, mink, fox, etc., allows you to get skins for sewing outerwear, hats, accessories and other things.
- Beekeeping. Honey, wax, royal jelly are also more than necessary products.
These are the main livestock sectors. In addition to them, in our country also reindeer breeding, fish farming, camel breeding are developed.
Main types of livestock products
Without cattle breeding as part of the national economy, no country in the world can manage. The products of this branch of animal husbandry can be divided into two main types:
- Obtained actually in the process of breeding. This can include eggs, milk, wool.
- Obtained during cultivation for slaughter (meat, liver, etc.).
Technology of cattle breeding
The profitability of such an industry as livestock, in Russia and in any other country depends on several factors:
- The efficiency of feeding. A prerequisite is the dietary diversity and its usefulness on a set of amino acids, protein and vitamins. The lack of trace elements there is a need to use different kinds of additives.
- Conditions of detention. This factor also has a significant impact on dairy and beef cattle breeding. Cattle should be provided with good conditions for development and growth.
- Competent breeding work. At the moment, one of the main conditions for its success is the importation of thoroughbred animals from abroad.
- Permanent veterinary control. It is important to take preventive measures, to reduce loss of livestock due to various kinds of diseases. Required according to the standards vaccinated animals to do, be sure and timely.
Feeding of cattle
Such branches of agriculture, as dairy and meat-dairy farming in terms of profitability are in direct dependence on agriculture. The basic premise of successful farm development in this direction is the availability of quality forage. For each age and sex group of animals develops special diets:
- When feeding dry cows and heifers, it is important first of all to prepare them for the subsequent lactation. Therefore, the diet of these animals includes high-quality forage – hay, silage, and root crops. In the summer they provide good pastures and supplements.
- For milk cows it is important to develop optimal feeding standards that take into account the needs of animals in proteins, vitamins, exchange energy, etc.
- Producers' diet should ensure the preservation of health and reproductive abilities. Feed such animals especially tightly.
Conditions of detention
Meat and dairy, meat and dairy farming are subsectors whose profitability largely depends on the correct choice of technology for keeping animals. Methods for growing cattle at the moment there are several:
- On the tethered content. In this case, the stall period for each animal provides its own paddock. The tether restricts movement, but it is free to lie, to stand, to eat food. Milking is performed directly in the stall.
- On loose-fitting content. This technology is often used in dairy cattle. Animals on free-range walking at any time of the day have the opportunity to access the drinking bowls and feeders, as well as rest rooms.
- Pasture maintenance is practiced in summer. Usually, animals are driven out to fields rich in mixed herbs, located near watering places: streams, lakes and rivers.
Successful development of livestock agriculture are only for the competent management of breeding work. Lately our country has brought a lot of producers of high-yielding breeds from Europe. It has become possible primarily due to the increase of subsidies provided by the state. Due to this situation currently in the country there has been a steady tendency of growth of cattle. In 2014 alone, the national herd has increased by more than 18%.
The absence of losses associated with mortality of cattle on a cattle livestock industry has a huge impact in the aspect of profitability. The state of health of animals, and therefore the growth of livestock directly dependent upon compliance with the following rules:
- Farms should be located in elevated, unheated areas.
- In those premises where cattle are kept, an optimal microclimate must be created.
- The premises of the cattle-breeding complex must be kept clean. Sanitary treatment is carried out at least once a week.
- It should be developed a complex of veterinary-preventive measures aimed at risk reduction and elimination of infectious diseases. All animals on the farm should be timely to do the required vaccinations. In each complex there must be a quarantine paddock.
Features of small-horned cattle farming
The industry of animal husbandry breeding large and small cattle technology animal similar in many ways. The farming of small animals is only the peculiarity that in this case the main products of production, in addition to meat, are wool and fluff.
Cutting of small ruminants is carried out with the following rules:
- Carry out this procedure only in dry weather.
- After shearing, animals should be kept in warm pens for at least 15-20 days.
- The room in which the procedure is performed must comply with all sanitary standards.
- When using electric clippers, the proper safety rules must be followed.
- After removal of the wool, the animals are examined for cuts and, if necessary, disinfecting.
Pig breeding as an animal husbandry industry
This area is agriculture at the moment is also considered to be quite profitable. Pig farming as a business in our country developed quite well. Growing pigs are involved in personal farmsteads and farms and big industrial complexes. The best is currently considered technological scheme of pig production with a complete cycle. The so-called process, in which the receiving of pigs, their breeding and slaughter are produced in the same farm. In this case, can be practiced only two ways of keeping animals:
- Backyard. This technology is most often used in regions with a warm climate. In the farms can be used stankoviansky and svobodnovihrevye methods. In the first case of pigs kept in the machines and go for a walk at specially designated sites. When svobodnovihrevym content animals can go into machines and leave them on their own initiative.
- Unguided. In this case, animals are constantly kept in individual machines or in small groups in specially designated premises.
Like the song, in addition to optimal conditions, pig farming as a business is the effectiveness of feeding, and from, how well will be breeding. It is also important to implement preventive measures aimed at prevention of deaths of animals result from the infection.
Features of poultry farming
The livestock industry in breeding poultry at the moment are developing dynamically. The main goal in this case, of course, is to obtain dietary meat and eggs. The byproduct in this case are considered to be feathers. At the moment these farms may divorce the following bird types:
- Chickens. Their cultivation is the most popular area of poultry. Breeding work in this case is mainly in obtaining of highly productive breeds. There are only two main areas of Surovtseva – egg and meat. Breeding of this bird is split on personal backyards and on small farms and large poultry farms.
- Geese. Their cultivation is also considered quite profitable business. Development of the diet of geese does not require the use and implementation of any special technology, just the same as the conditions of detention. The main food of this bird is grass, but it can be contained in small spaces. Of course, when growing in this case should also follow certain sanitary standards. Geese, like chickens, and garden plots, and large poultry farms.
- Turkeys. This bird in our country is bred mainly on private household plots. Technologies of its cultivation remain traditional and unchanged for more than one century.
In addition to these most common types of commercial poultry in Russia bred Guinea fowl, quail, songbirds and ornamental birds, and even ostriches. However, such activities occupied only a few enthusiasts who find it interesting and profitable. On an industrial scale these species in our country don't get divorced.
Horse breeding in Russia
It is also difficult to overestimate the importance of this branch of animal husbandry. Classify it can be in two main areas:
- Horse breeding. Its development in Russia are now receiving maximum attention. At the moment there are about 70 breeding plants, which bred more than 30 breeds of horses. Livestock breeding today is one of the priority areas of agriculture.
- Tabunnaya meat horse breeding. This branch of livestock farming has developed mainly in those regions where it is traditional.
- Equine horse breeding. Often combined with meat. The high profitability of dairy horse breeding is primarily due to the high cost of koumiss.
- Sports horse breeding. In this case, animals are bred for participation in competitions.
Not too dynamically horse breeding in Russia is developing mainly due to the lack of internal market for breeding animals, the obsolescence of technical equipment of factories and the low organization level of management.
Horse breeding technology
In modern farms, there are only three basic methods of keeping horses:
- Year-round pasture. This is the most promising and productive method. In this case, caring for animals is basically reduced to pasture change, veterinary treatment and protection.
- Shed-base. This method is usually used when breeding custom horses. In this case, the animals are kept on a leash and are driven out to pastures only in the summer.
- Cultural-herd. This technology is usually used when keeping pedigree animals.
Technology of breeding animals for skins also has a lot of its nuances. In this case, the priority is to ensure animals are healthy and comfortable living conditions. Fur farming in Russia at the moment, development is very good. The farms use three main technologies of the maintenance of animals:
- Outer cell. This method is usually used on small farms when breeding animals such as arctic foxes, foxes, ferrets, muskrats and nutria.
- Content in shed. So called special canopies with a gable roof and a wide passage.
- Indoors in cages. This method in our country in recent years is becoming more common.
Such livestock industry of agriculture as farming, pig and cattle breeding, of course, play in the development of Russia's economy is more than noticeable role. However, one cannot underestimate the value of smaller areas, such as beekeeping, fish farming, herding, etc. with regard to the first, the negative processes that have affected society during the perestroika period, she, fortunately, did not exert any influence. In the early 1990s actually saw a significant decrease in the number of bee colonies. Soon, however, the decline slowed down, and then the figure is fully stabilized and remained the same (3 million families) for several years. Currently, beekeeping in Russia is engaged in more than 5 thousand households and about 300 thousand fans.
The above types of livestock are the most important branches of agriculture in our country. How well they will develop, depends on the degree of the population's food. Increasing the profitability of ranching, beekeeping, poultry and pig farms directly depends on the dynamics of introducing new technologies of cultivation, animal keeping and breeding.