The struggle for maritime boundaries
This dispute did not arise from scratch. In all ages, countries that had water boundaries were in a winning position. The military and merchant fleet, fishing, border protection, rich ports, regularly delivering coins to the treasury, are just some of the advantages of access to the sea. Until the end of the century before last, one of the most honorable and desired titles for many such states was the recognition of them as "Lady of the sea". Since the 15th century, Spain, Portugal, Holland, England, Russia fought for the title, and Germany, which later came out to the world arena. The struggle for the Russian seas was very difficult. Only when Peter the Great came back to us the once-lost Baltic. And the Black Sea Russia was able to rejoin itself only a century and a half later, under Catherine the Great. And the struggle for it with its closest neighbors until the twentieth century was very cruel. This can be understood only by looking at the numerous memorials on the Black Sea coast. Such, for example, as a monument to the dead seamen in Sevastopol.
What's the catch?
It would seem that it is very easy to answer the question of how many seas wash Russia, it is enough to open the map and to carefully examine it. But ... This is where the stumbling block lies. Scientists have been arguing for decades about the number of Russia's maritime borders. How many of them? 12? Or all the same 13? And maybe, and at all 14?
The whole difficulty lies in what is considered the seas. And world scientific thought still can not come to an agreement on this issue. In general, the very notion of "the sea" is rather vague. For example, the Mediterranean includes also the Aegean, which is separated only by the unevenness of the bottom, and the Arctic Ocean is divided by the coast of Russia into a dozen seas. And there is also a non-verbal designation. "Ladoga Sea", "Glorious Sea - sacred Baikal".
According to hydrologists
And yet, what is usually called the sea in scientific circles?
1) This is the name for a part of the World Ocean separated from it by land or underwater mountain chain, but having a connection with it. This classification is most common. It includes most of the famous seas. But in this case, the question remains of the "inner seas", not connected in any way with any ocean.
2) According to the second tradition, any large saline reservoir is considered by the sea, regardless of whether it has an outlet to the ocean or not.
These disagreements are one of the reasons why scientists can not agree on how many seas wash Russia. Should the Caspian and the Aral Sea, which currently have no connection with the World Ocean, be considered as such? Or should they be allowed to be salted, but still lakes?
Water Borders on the Country Map
The map shows impartially how many seas wash Russia, and their names. Consider. In the south - the Black and Azov Seas. Unfortunately, it is not known how long the latter will retain its status. Now it is growing increasingly shallow, its maximum depth barely reaches 20 meters. So, perhaps soon we will become poor on the same sea.
In the north, our country is washed immediately by 7 seas, which belong to 2 oceans. Baltic - to the Atlantic. Barents, White, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi - to the Arctic.
In the east, we border the USA and Japan with the Bering Sea, the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk, which belong to the Pacific Ocean.
Sea with a disputed status
Thus, everything is obtained. But then the question of how many seas washing Russia rises again. It turns out that there are 3 more water bodies, whose status is still in question.
The Caspian. Like many seas of Russia, it belongs to the Atlantic Ocean, but only nominally. The fact is that it does not have a direct relationship to them. The Caspian Sea is a fragment of those times when the salty waters of the ancient Tethys ocean splashed on the site of present-day Siberia and China. Now the Caspian Sea is a drainless one, and only the community of animal and vegetable worlds reminds of the connection with the Atlantic. For many years, geographers can not agree on whether it is possible to consider it a sea by definition or to be classed as a salt lake. Nevertheless, the Caspian Sea was officially restored recently.
The Pechora. Another stumbling block. It is formed by the unevenness of the water relief and, strictly speaking, is just the coastal part of the Barents Sea, at the point where the Pechora River flows into it. Despite the fact that some scientists refuse to single out it as a separate object, it officially appears on the map of Russia.
Aral. Speaking objectively, the question of it has long been considered closed. A few decades ago, there was a heated debate about this drying up drainage pond. Like the Caspian, it has no connection with the ocean, moreover, because of the shallowing of the rivers feeding it, the Amudarya and the Syr Darya, it recedes every year. And despite the fact that many habitually call the Aral Sea, it is legally a salt lake without a lake.
On this table you can see how many seas wash our country.