Have you ever felt dizzy? These feelings, when everything around you is floating and staggering, or, conversely, you are somewhere to fail, it is difficult to call pleasant. Well, if this happens periodically, then involuntarily you will be interested, from what the head is turned and how to get rid of these "inexpressible" sensations.

Dizziness - illness or physiology?

First of all, it should be noted that dizziness is not a separate disease. It can both accompany some physiological processes in a healthy body, and become a symptom of many pathologies. How to distinguish, when you do not need to worry, and when you should not waste time and urgently need to see a doctor?

An organ that is responsible for the balance of a person and his sense of space is the vestibular apparatus. For internal control of their position in space, the signals from the auditory, visual, cutaneous and motor receptors are constantly arriving at the region of the inner ear where it is located. From there information goes to the temporal region of the cerebral cortex, where its processing takes place. Any disturbance in this chain leads to such disorders as dizziness, disequilibrium, nausea. In addition, disorders associated with vestibular disorders are most often "external" manifestations: floating surrounding objects, visible black dots, fog in front of the eyes. True dizziness is associated with "rotation inside the head."

Types of dizziness

Before answering the question of what makes a head spin, it is worthwhile to figure out what kinds of vertigo there are. If you have consulted a doctor, he first of all must determine which, central or peripheral dizziness occurs. It should be noted that both these options are considered pathological and the fight against them, especially if the head is constantly dizzy, is the work of a neurologist. What are their differences?

Peripheral dizziness has a vegetative character. It is accompanied by tachycardia, sweating, loss of balance, while the darkness in the eyes and dizzy. For such attacks characterized by a sudden onset, a short course and an equally sharp end. Attacks of peripheral vertigo can be described as follows: the head turns and darkens in the eyes, the coordination of movements is abruptly broken, the person turns red or pales, cold sweat appears, ears, ringing, or blockedness are heard in the ears. Turns of the head often sharply worsen the situation.

Central dizziness is more serious, since in this situation, when the head is spinning, the causes lie in the violation of the activities of the departments responsible for the vestibular apparatus of the brainstem and cerebellum. Consequences of attacks of central dizziness persist for a long time in the form of uncertainty in walking, speech disorders and motor activity of half of the body. When such attacks occur, it is necessary to urgently consult a neurologist.

The head turns: causes (physiological)

Vertigo, which is caused by physiological factors, is not uncommon in our life. So, for example, many have experienced that they are very dizzy when riding on rides or when driving fast on transport. And what can I say, if a person is in an environment that is unusual for him? This is because the brain does not immediately perceive the signals from the receptors: that is, he "prepared" to see one, and show him something completely different, while he analyzes and tries to combine both signals. It is this that can explain that the head is spinning after the carousel. The same applies to seasickness: if you are on a ship, your eyes see a fixed situation, and the vestibular apparatus reports a continuous rolling. This dissonance also causes dizziness and nausea.

"I feel dizzy when I get up" - this is another very common complaint. It is also related to physiology. Sharply changing the position of the body in space, you ensure the outflow of blood from the brain. Let this process take a fraction of a second and the full blood supply is quickly restored, but absolutely healthy people who do not notice this drop are not that many. Therefore, doctors do not advise to jump to their feet from a prone position or even sitting, because if a person has low blood pressure or reduced vascular tone, then the complaint that "it makes me dizzy when I get up" can be complicated by loss of consciousness.

Stress can be another factor that causes dizziness. The reason for this is adrenaline, the release of which accompanies any strong emotion: both positive and negative. Under its influence, the vessels contract, reducing the blood supply to the brain and raising pressure. As a result, a person who is very worried can feel that his eyes are getting dark and dizzy, sick and the floor is getting out from under his feet.

Also, physiology can explain and dizziness at altitude. In this case, the answer to the question of what makes the head spin, will be the inability of the visual receptors to instantly focus on nearby objects after viewing distant ones. In addition, if you are at the top and there is a chasm in front of you, then the brain receives a signal about an empty space where there is no support, but the muscular receptors insist that you are standing on a solid surface, and this contradiction causes the brain to "hang" .

Dizziness and pregnancy

Many pregnant women complain of frequent dizziness. Do not worry - this is quite natural. Such a grandiose restructuring in the body of a woman simply can not help but affect the circulatory system. At the same time at different times, the causes of dizziness may be different.

For the first trimester, these disorders are characteristic of a sudden change in position or a prolonged stay in a stuffy room. In the second trimester, when changes in the body of women are already more significant, dizziness may occur due to low blood pressure or circulatory disorders, which can cause a decrease in the amount of oxygen and glucose entering the brain. In the third trimester, when the uterus becomes more active, the oxygen starvation of the brain is further intensified, and dizziness also increases. Usually they are accompanied by what future mothers lay or makes noise in the ears. The most important thing at this moment is not to lose balance and not to fall.

A little bit about bad habits

Despite the fact that so much has been said about the dangers of smoking and alcohol, it's simply impossible not to mention them when talking about dizziness. Let's start with smoking.

Many people say that the head is spinning during or immediately after smoking. This phenomenon has absolutely natural causes. First, in the process of smoking, tightening, the smoker provides himself with hyperventilation of the lungs, which in itself causes dizziness. Secondly, another factor leading to these unpleasant sensations is the composition of tobacco smoke. Its components, in addition to other harmful properties, narrow the blood vessels, thereby greatly reducing the access of oxygen to the brain. And this state does not end with a cigarette, but lasts several tens of minutes.

Hangover syndrome also does not differ pleasant sensations and is often accompanied by dizziness. This is a sign of poisoning with ethyl alcohol and its derivatives. Because of their influence, there is a partial edema of the brain, which causes thrombosis of the capillaries, increases the pressure. All this, in addition to dizziness, is accompanied by headaches, palpitations, nausea and vomiting.

Pathological dizziness

Unfortunately, situations where the head is constantly dizzy, most often signal the presence of any pathology. "True" dizziness is a consequence of the defeat of the vestibular apparatus. It can be various inflammatory processes, tumors, traumas. Similar symptoms appear when the following departments are affected:

  • auditory nerve;
  • inner and middle ear;
  • departments responsible for the movement and balance in the brainstem and the cerebellum.

Another option for answering the question of what makes a person dizzy is an inadequate blood supply to the brain. This happens in the following situations:

  • low blood pressure (may be due to hypotension or trauma);
  • low level of hemoglobin;
  • low blood sugar;
  • lack of oxygen.

Diets and dizziness

Diets have firmly entered the life of modern women and even some men. But few people think that the answer to the question, whether the head can be dizzy because of the diet, is also positive. Often, in pursuit of ideal weight, women almost completely refuse to eat or eat foods that do not contain the required amount of substances that the body needs. First of all, this refers to meat and other products rich in iron. The danger of unbalanced diets is that the necessary amount of microelements does not enter the body. Over time, such a disease as iron deficiency anemia begins to develop. It is characterized by a sharp decrease in hemoglobin in the blood, and since it is the main "carrier" of oxygen in the body, the emergence of a situation where the head is dizzy and dizzy because the brain does not get enough oxygen will be natural.

Osteochondrosis

Pathologies of the spine, in particular osteochondrosis, can also cause dizziness. Dystrophic changes in these pathologies lead to compression of the spinal roots and large vessels that feed the brain. Not surprisingly, one of the signs of osteochondrosis is that the head is very dizzy. So, with cervical osteochondrosis, patients complain of prolonged dizziness, motor disorders, impaired coordination of movements. In severe cases, dizziness is accompanied by other neurological symptoms - a violation of sensitivity in some areas of the body, a sense of "goosebumps, hearing and visual impairment."

Reaction to drugs

As it is unfortunate, but the saying "one treat - the other is crippled" very correctly describes modern pharmacology. If you take any annotation to a medicine and carefully study it, then almost every list of side effects will be more than extensive. Dizziness can be the result of taking such a drug, and the stronger its medicinal effect, the higher the risk of dizziness. The most powerful effect of this kind is the following groups of drugs:

  • antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs of recent generations - when taking these medications, many complain about the feeling of rotation of objects;
  • antihistamine - their reception is often accompanied by side effects from the nervous system, in particular, the vestibular apparatus suffers;
  • tranquilizers and strong sedatives.

Disorders of cerebral circulation

Vertigo can become a sign of a serious pathology, such as a stroke. Of course, this symptom will not be the only one. To suspect an acute violation of cerebral circulation can be, if the following disorders occur. On a background of severe headache, numbness or weakness in the muscles of the legs or hands, on the face appears. Sight of one or both eyes suddenly deteriorated, difficulties in speech recognition arose. The head is spinning, the pressure is greatly increased, and the coordination of movements is sharply reduced. In case such signs have appeared at you or at someone who is nearby, it is necessary to urgently cause an ambulance.

What to do if I feel dizzy

An attack of dizziness in most people occurs suddenly. What needs to be done to stabilize the state? First of all - calm down and do not panic. If an attack of dizziness caught you on the street, then it's best to stop and try to lean on something. The best option is to find a place and sit down. This should be done to avoid falling, since dizziness attacks are usually accompanied by loss of orientation in space and impaired coordination. In such conditions it is very easy to lose balance and get injured.

If a fit of dizziness caught you at home, it would be best to lie down, placing it in such a way that the head was at the same level with the rest of the body. The best solution is if the pillow from under the head moves to the feet. This will provide increased blood flow to the brain and help to normalize the condition. After the dizziness has passed, do not jump off the bed abruptly. It will be superfluous to lie down for a few minutes, after that take a sitting position and only then climb to your feet.

If the head hurts and dizziness, noise in the ears grows, vision deteriorates, weakness or numbness in the muscles grows, then it is urgent to call an ambulance.

It is impossible to determine quickly whether dizziness is a physiological phenomenon or is a sign of a serious illness. One thing is important: if this is not an isolated case, and seizures are repeated regularly, then a visit to the doctor is inevitable, and it is not worthwhile postponing it. Consultation of a neurologist and a thorough examination will help to find out the cause and get rid of this problem.

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