The states and needs of people that arise when they need something are at the core of their motives. That is, needs are the source of activity of each individual. A person is a willing creature, so in reality it is unlikely that it will turn out so that his needs are fully met. The nature of human needs is such that as soon as any need is satisfied, the next one comes first.
Maslow's Needs Pyramid
The concept of the needs of Abraham Maslow, perhaps, is the most famous of all. The psychologist not only classified the needs of people, but also made an interesting assumption. Maslow noted that each person has an individual hierarchy of necessities. That is, there are basic human needs - they are also called basic, and additional.
According to the concept of the psychologist, absolutely all people on earth are experiencing the needs of all levels. And there is the following law: the basic human needs are dominant. However, the needs of a high level can also remind of themselves and become motivators of behavior, but this happens only when the basic ones are satisfied.
The basic needs of people are those that are aimed at survival. At the base of Maslow's pyramid are basic necessities. Human biological needs are the most important. Next comes the need for security. Meeting the security needs of a person ensures survival as well as a sense of consistency in living conditions.
A person feels the needs of a higher level only when he has done everything to ensure his physical well-being. Social needs of a person consist in the fact that he feels the need to unite with other people, in love and recognition. After satisfying this need, the following are highlighted. A person’s spiritual needs are self-esteem, protection from loneliness and feeling worthy of respect.
Further, at the very top of the pyramid of needs is the need to unleash your potential, to realize yourself. A similar human need for Maslow’s activity was explained as a desire to become what he originally was.
Maslow assumed that this need is innate and, most importantly, common to each individual. However, at the same time, it is obvious that people are strikingly different from each other in their motivation. For various reasons, not everyone is able to reach the top of necessity. Throughout their lives, people's needs may vary between physical and social, so they are not always aware of the needs, for example, in self-realization, because they are extremely busy with the satisfaction of lower desires.
The needs of man and society are divided into natural and unnatural. In addition, they are constantly expanding. The development of human needs is due to the development of society.
Thus, it can be concluded that the higher the needs of a person, the brighter his individuality.
Are hierarchy violations possible?
Examples of breaking the hierarchy in meeting the needs are known to everyone. Probably, if the spiritual needs of a person were experienced only by those who are well-fed and healthy, then the very concept of such needs would have sunk into oblivion a long time ago. Therefore, the organization needs a lot of exceptions.
An extremely important fact is that the satisfaction of need can never take place on the principle of “all or nothing.” After all, if this were so, then physiological necessities would be saturated once and for a lifetime, and then the transition to the social needs of a person would follow without the possibility of a return. There is no need to prove the opposite.
Human biological needs
The lower level of Maslow's pyramid are those needs that ensure human survival. Of course, they are the most urgent and have the most powerful driving force. In order for an individual to feel the needs of higher levels, biological needs must be satisfied at least minimally.
Security and protection needs
This level of vital or vital needs is a necessity of safety and protection. It is safe to say that if the physiological needs are closely related to the survival of the organism, the need for safety ensures its long life.
Needs love and supplies
This is the next level of Maslow's pyramid. The need for love is closely related to the desire of the individual to avoid loneliness and to be accepted into human society. When the needs of the previous two levels are met, motives of this kind occupy a dominant position.
In our behavior, almost everything is determined by the need for love. It is important for any person to be included in a relationship, be it a family, a work team, or something else. The baby needs love, and no less than the satisfaction of physical needs and the need for security.
The need for love is particularly evident in the adolescent period of human development. At this time, it is precisely the motives that grow out of this need that become leading.
Need for love and acceptance in adulthood
As a person matures, the need for love begins to focus on more selective and deeper relationships. Now needs are pushing people to create families. In addition, it is not the number of friendships that is becoming more important, but their quality and depth. It is easy to see that adults have far fewer friends than adolescents, but these friendships are necessary for the mental well-being of the individual.
Despite the large number of various means of communication, people in modern society are very fragmented. Today, a person does not feel part of the community, perhaps - a part of a family that consists of three generations, but for many it is also missing. In addition, children who lacked intimacy, in a more mature age, are afraid of it. On the one hand, they neurotic avoid close relationships, as they are afraid of losing themselves as a person, and on the other, they really need them.
Maslow identified two main types of relationships. They are not necessarily married, but may well be friendly, between children and parents and so on. What are the two types of love highlighted by Maslow?
This kind of love is aimed at the desire to fill the lack of something vital. Deficient love has a certain source - these are unmet needs. A person may experience a lack of self-respect, protection or acceptance. This kind of love is a feeling born of egoism. It is motivated by the desire of the individual to fill his inner world. A man is not able to give anything, he only takes.
Alas, but in most cases the basis of long-term relationships, including marital relations, is precisely deficient love. The parties to such a union can live together all their lives, but much in their relationship is determined by the inner hunger of one of the participants in the couple.
Deficit love is a source of dependence, fear of losing, jealousy, and constant attempts to pull the blanket over, suppressing and subjugating the partner in order to tie him closer to him.
This feeling is based on the recognition of the unconditional value of a loved one, but not for any qualities or special merits, but simply for what he is. Of course, being-love is also designed to satisfy human needs for acceptance, but its striking difference is that it does not have an element of possessiveness. The desire to rob a neighbor of what you need yourself is also not observed.
The person who is able to experience existential love does not seek to alter a partner or somehow change him, but encourages all the best qualities in him and supports the desire to grow and develop spiritually.
Maslow himself described this kind of love as a healthy relationship between people that is based on mutual trust, respect and admiration.
Despite the fact that this level of needs is designated as a need for self-esteem, Maslow divided it into two types: self-respect and respect from other people. Although they are closely related to each other, therefore, it is often extremely difficult to separate them.
A person’s need for self-esteem is that he must know that he is capable of many things. For example, that successfully cope with its tasks and requirements, and that feels like a full-fledged person.
If this type of need is not met, then there is a feeling of weakness, dependence and inferiority. Moreover, the stronger these experiences, the less effective human activity becomes.
It should be noted that self-esteem is healthy only when it is based on respect from other people, and not status in society, flattery, and so on. Only in this case, the satisfaction of such a need will contribute to psychological stability.
It is interesting that the need for self-esteem in different periods of life manifests itself in different ways. Psychologists have noticed that young people who are just starting to create a family and look for their professional niche need the most respect from others.
The highest level in the pyramid of needs is the need for self-actualization. Abraham Maslow defined this need as the desire of a person to become what he can become. For example, musicians write music, poets write poems, artists draw. Why? Because they want to be themselves in this world. They need to follow their nature.
For whom is self-actualization important?
It should be noted that not only those who have any talent need self-actualization. Each person has his personal or creative potential. Each person has a vocation. The need for self-actualization is to find the cause of your life. The forms and possible ways of self-actualization are very diverse, and it is on this spiritual level of needs that the motives and behavior of people are most unique and individual.
Psychologists say that the desire to maximize self-realization is inherent in every person. However, the people whom Maslow called self-actualizing are extremely few. Not more than 1% of the population. Why are the incentives that should encourage a person to work, does not always work?
Maslow in his works indicated the following three reasons for this unfavorable behavior.
First, a person’s ignorance about their capabilities, as well as a lack of understanding of the benefits of self-improvement. In addition, there are ordinary doubts about one’s own strength or the fear of failure.
Secondly, the pressures of prejudice - cultural or social. That is, human abilities can go against the stereotypes that society imposes. For example, stereotypes of femininity and masculinity can prevent a young man from becoming a talented makeup artist or dancer, and a girl to achieve success, for example, in military affairs.
Thirdly, the need for self-actualization can go against the need for security. For example, if self-realization requires risky or dangerous actions from a person or actions that do not guarantee success.