The lesson is the main component of any educational process. It is on him that the main focus is not only the student, but also the teacher. Therefore, the quality of the preparation of students for a particular subject largely depends on the level of the lesson, its methodological and meaningful fullness, as well as on the prevailing atmosphere in the classroom.
How to achieve high educational performance? For this, the teacher should carefully prepare all the steps of the modern GEF lesson. These standards contain recommendations that allow not only to equip students with skills and knowledge, but also to tell the teacher what to do so that everything that happens in the classroom will cause the pupils genuine enthusiasm and sincere interest.
Structure of the modern lesson
To ensure the goal-oriented activity of the learning process, all its components are divided into separate elements. These are the stages of the lesson. They include not only the study of new material, accompanied by high mental activity of students, but also the fulfillment of the task of memorizing and long-term preservation of all the knowledge gained in memory.
Stages of the GEF lesson in the main school depend on its goals and objectives. So, if the students are offered to consolidate and develop the knowledge they have already gained, then the lesson stages include:
- message to the students of the purpose of the lesson;
- reproduction of knowledge, abilities and skills of students;
- the fulfillment by the pupils of the tasks proposed by the teacher, the exercises;
- verification of work already performed;
- discussion of errors and their correction;
- recording of homework (if necessary).
Stages of the lesson on GEF, a sample of which is given below, are intended to form the skills and abilities of students. A similar structure of the educational process consists of:
- from setting goals;
- repetition of already formed knowledge and skills;
- solving verification tasks;
- acquaintance with new skills;
- demonstration of the sample of the exercise according to the received knowledge and fulfillment of the task according to the indicated algorithm;
- summarizing the lesson;
- recording homework.
Stages of the GEF consolidation lesson are:
- in the organization of the beginning of the lesson;
- the setting of educational and educational tasks;
- checking the homework.
In the lesson on the consolidation of the acquired knowledge, the teacher should create a calm and business environment. Children should not be afraid of control and verification work. This will cause their excessive excitement and distort the results.
Stages of the lesson in primary school
Modern Russian education considers its main goal not the usual transfer of skills and abilities from the teacher to the student, but the formation and further development of the children's abilities to independently formulate the educational problem, to formulate an algorithm for its solution, and also to monitor the evaluation of the result obtained.
A modern lesson on GEF is an effective educational process. It is directly related to the interests of the child and his parents, as well as the state and society as a whole.
The stages of the GEF lesson in elementary school have their own characteristics and consist of the following elements:
- class organization;
- actualization (repetition) of previously acquired skills and knowledge;
- statement of the problem;
- discovering new knowledge;
- primary fixing of the material;
- perform self-study with a self-test according to the proposed standard;
- inclusion of new material in the knowledge system;
- summing up the lesson.
All stages of the GEF lesson in primary school are aimed at preparing the student for self-development. It is assumed that the junior schoolchild will have the ability to:
- independently choose goals that are adequate to the abilities available to him;
- set goals and make decisions;
- independently find ways to solve non-standard situations;
- to exercise control over one's own actions;
- coordinate their point of view with other people and communicate with them.
In other words, the stages of a modern lesson in the conditions of GEF aim to transform a child from a passive listener into a researcher who extracts knowledge and works independently with other children. This increases the role of the teacher. He must be a real professional and have the desire to reveal the abilities of each student. This is the main resource of the educational process, without which the modern requirements of the GEF, which presuppose the organization of educational and upbringing activities in the school, become impossible.
The main stages of the school lesson
The most important task that the modern education system sets itself is not only the learning of children by knowledge in this or that subject. Its goal is also the formation of training activities that involve "learning to learn."
A modern schoolboy needs the ability to manage his own educational activities and have the skills of self-evaluation and self-control. The main stages of the GEF lesson are:
- productive independent activity;
Let us consider them in more detail.
In the structure of traditional lessons this stage took the leading place. However, to date, the education system is considering it from a new position. All stages of the GEF lesson have undergone certain qualitative changes. They touched and the goals. At this stage, the teacher's task is not at all to bring his goal to the students. The teacher should create such conditions that the child himself realized the meaning of the educational task and took it as particularly significant for him. Only in this case will the activity of the student become purposeful and motivated. The child will strive to find, learn and prove.
Considering the goals of the lessons of the GEF lesson, it can be said that goal-setting in a special way projects educational activities of schoolchildren. At the same time, it is related to the level of development of children, the features of the topic being studied, the professionalism of the teacher and the external social order.
Organization of the first stage of the school lesson
Often the question of formulating the goal is difficult for teachers. This may be due to the fact that the first stage of the lesson, as many believe, should be simply overcome, and then forgotten about it. However, it is not. The goal-setting goes through all the stages of the lesson in accordance with the GEF. At the same time, he is entrusted with the functions of motivating trainees, as well as stabilizing the process of obtaining knowledge and diagnosing the work done. In other words, we can say this: "As the goal was set, this is the result that will be obtained."
Organize the goal-setting stage is not easy. This process will require thinking over the methods and means that would motivate schoolchildren for the upcoming activity.
One of the options for solving this technological problem can be selected the following list of actions:
- conducting diagnostics of students' goals;
- systematization and subsequent analysis of identified data;
- designing of technological lines for acquiring knowledge of schoolchildren and a technological line for the supply of material by the teacher.
Methods of goal-setting
Passing consistently the stages of the GEF lesson, the teacher at the very first of them should name the topic of the lesson and suggest that the class formulate a goal. This can be done using verbs. Among them are the following: to analyze, study and be able to figure out, prove and generalize, compare, fix, etc.
Another method of goal setting includes work on the concept. In this case, the teacher should explain the meaning of all the words of the topic, finding answers in the explanatory dictionary.
The third method of goal setting invites the teacher to conduct conversations with children, aimed at concretization and generalization of new teaching material. Such a dialogue brings children to what they can not yet talk about because of their incompetence. In the situation that arises, additional actions or research will be required from schoolchildren. This is the setting of the goal of the lesson.
The teacher can also offer children a particular problem situation. This method leads to the fact that the child discovers a shortage of his abilities and knowledge. In this case, the goal will be perceived by him as a subjective problem.
How can I improve the effectiveness of the lesson? To do this, the teacher must go on the most accessible path, tested by long practice. At the same time, the lesson enters its second stage, which involves independent work of students. In this time interval, which occupies a special place in any school occupation, children acquire knowledge in the course of their personal activities.
In this case, the teacher only needs to manage the independent work of his wards. This stage of the lesson becomes a very effective means of teaching, which:
- in each concrete case corresponds to the set didactic goal and solved tasks;
- leads students from ignorance to knowledge, forming at them a certain amount and level of skills;
- develops children's psychological readiness for systematic independent replenishment of their knowledge, as well as the ability to navigate the huge flow of social and scientific information;
- serves as a serious instrument of pedagogical management and leadership over the independent educational activity of a schoolboy.
Organization of the second stage of the lesson
GEF put forward certain requirements for the content of independent work, the form of its implementation and designation. All these instructions allow the correct organization of this stage of the lesson, the main goal of which is not only the acquisition of new knowledge, but also the development of habits and skills for work.
Independent work can be:
In this case, such tasks can be:
- Reproduced according to the pattern. This will allow the student to memorize a certain algorithm of actions in each specific situation and to sufficiently assimilate them.
- Performed for reconstructive-variant type. Such independent work is carried out on the basis of already acquired knowledge, offering a search for a specific method for solving new problems.
- Heuristic. Such independent works form the students' skills and skills in finding solutions outside the known pattern.
- Creative. Such work allows students to gain new knowledge, as well as constantly strengthen the skills of their independent search.
At this stage of the lesson, children can be offered various types of work with the book, as well as the solution of exercises and tasks.
After the first and second stages of the lesson (according to GEF) are passed, the new state standards of general education offer the next step in universal educational activities. It consists in getting children reflexive skills. At the same time, students should understand the reasons for the success or failure of their learning activities.
At school there should not be unsuccessful children. The teacher is obliged to notice even the slightest advancement of the child forward and in time to support it.
Reflection as a stage of the modern lesson (GEF) allows to support children's activity and creativity. It also has a direct impact on the student's awareness.
Reflection is a prerequisite for creating a learning environment in the classroom. And for the teacher it is not an end in itself. This is the process that prepares children for inner conscious reflection. What does this concept include? Translated from Latin, the word "reflexion" means nothing more than "turning back."
According to the dictionary of foreign words, this concept means "self-knowledge and thinking about the internal state". The stress in this word is placed on the syllable "le".
Considering the stages of the GEF lesson, it is impossible to ignore the reflection. In modern pedagogy this concept means self-analysis of educational activity, as well as its results. Reflection accustoms a child to self-esteem, self-control and self-regulation. It forms a habit for him to comprehend events and various problems. Psychologists associate reflexion with the development and development of the spiritual life of man. However, it is difficult for a child to learn how to manage without the help of a teacher. It is the joint work of a teacher and a student that allows you to obtain concrete results that help the student to evaluate their activities in the lesson.
Types of Reflection
At the beginning and at the end of the lesson, the installation of emotional contact with students is of great importance for the teacher. To do this, he can take advantage of mood reflexion. The easiest option is to show the cards with the image of emoticons. And the faces depicted in the picture should be fun, sad and neutral. In addition, the teacher can offer the children to choose their choice in the sun or on the cloud. The first picture will mean a good mood, and the second one - a bad mood.
Another method of reflecting the mood is to choose one of the two paintings. On one of them is a landscape saddened with sadness, and on the second - with joy and joy. Students should choose a pattern appropriate to their mood.
The next kind of reflexion is the reflection of activity. It is a reflection of the methods and methods of work performed on the teaching material. This kind is applied, as a rule, when checking tasks at the end of the lesson. In this case, students are invited to evaluate the results of the lesson in the form of the end of such phrases as: