The lesson is the main component of any educational process. It focuses on him not only the student, but also the teacher. Therefore, the quality of training students in a particular subject depends largely on the level of the lesson, its methodological and substantive content, as well as on the atmosphere reigning in the classroom.
How to achieve high rates of educational process? To do this, the teacher must carefully prepare all the stages of the modern lesson on the GEF. These standards contain recommendations that allow not only to equip pupils with skills and knowledge, but also to prompt the teacher what to do to ensure that everything that happens in a class arouses genuine enthusiasm and sincere interest among pupils.
The structure of the modern lesson
To ensure the purposeful activity of the learning process, all its links are divided into separate elements. These are the stages of the lesson. They include not only the study of new material, accompanied by high mental activity of students, but also the task of memorizing and long-term preservation in memory of all the knowledge gained.
The stages of the GEF lesson in a primary school depend on its goals and objectives. So, if students are encouraged to consolidate and develop already acquired knowledge, then the lesson stages include:
- telling students about the purpose of the lesson;
- reproduction of knowledge and skills of students;
- the fulfillment by the students of the tasks and exercises proposed by the teacher;
- verification of work already performed;
- discussion of the mistakes made and their correction;
- record homework (if necessary).
The stages of the lesson on the GEF, a sample of which is given below, are intended to form the skills of the students. A similar structure of the educational process consists of:
- from setting goals;
- repetition of already formed knowledge and skills;
- solving test problems;
- acquaintance with new skills;
- show sample exercises for the knowledge gained and perform tasks for the specified algorithm;
- summarizing the lesson;
- homework records.
Stages of the consolidation lesson on the GEF are:
- in the organization of the beginning of the lesson;
- setting educational and educational objectives;
- checking homework.
In the lesson to consolidate the knowledge gained, the teacher must create a calm and businesslike atmosphere. Children should not frighten control and verification work. This will cause their excessive excitement and distort the results.
Stages of lesson in primary school
Modern Russian education considers its main goal is not the usual transfer of skills and abilities from teacher to student, but the formation and further development of children's abilities to independently formulate a learning problem, to formulate an algorithm for solving it, and later to monitor the evaluation of the result.
A modern lesson in GEF is an effective learning process. It is directly related to the interests of the child and his parents, as well as the state and society as a whole.
The stages of the GEF lesson in primary school have their own characteristics and consist of the following elements:
- class organizations;
- actualization (repetition) of previously acquired skills and knowledge;
- problem statement;
- discovery of new knowledge;
- physical exercises;
- primary fixation of the material;
- performing independent work with self-testing according to the proposed standard;
- physical exercises;
- inclusion of new material in the knowledge system;
- summarizing the lesson.
All stages of the GEF lesson in primary school are intended to prepare the student for self-development. It is assumed that the younger student will receive the ability to:
- independently choose goals that are adequate to his abilities;
- set tasks and make decisions;
- independently find solutions to non-standard situations;
- to control their own actions;
- coordinate your point of view with other people and communicate with them.
In other words, the stages of the modern lesson in the conditions of the GEF aim to transform a child from a passive listener into a researcher who extracts knowledge and works with other children independently. In this case, the role of the teacher increases. He must be a true professional and have a desire to reveal the abilities of each student. This is the main resource of the educational process, without which modern GEF requirements, involving the organization of teaching and educational activities at school, become impossible.
The main stages of the school lesson
The most important task that the modern education system has set for itself is not only in the mastering of knowledge by children on a particular subject. Its goal is the formation of learning activities that involve "teach to learn."
From the modern student requires the ability to manage their own educational activities and to possess the skills of self-esteem and self-control. At the same time, the main stages of the GEF lesson are:
- goal setting;
- productive self-activity;
Consider them in more detail.
In the structure of traditional lessons this stage occupied the leading place. However, today the education system considers it from a new position. All stages of the GEF lesson have undergone certain qualitative changes. They touched and goal-setting. At this stage, the task of the teacher is not to bring the students to their goal. The teacher must create such conditions so that the child himself realizes the meaning of the learning task and accepts it as especially meaningful to him. Only in this case, the activity of the student will be focused and motivated. The child will seek to find, learn and prove.
Considering the objectives of the stages of the lesson on the GEF, we can say that goal-setting in a special way designs the educational activities of schoolchildren. At the same time, it is connected with the level of development of children, the peculiarities of the topic being studied, the professionalism of the teacher and the external social order.
Organization of the first stage of the school lesson
It is often difficult for teachers to question the formulation of a goal. This may be due to the fact that the first stage of the lesson, as many believe, you just need to overcome, and then forget about it. However, it is not. Goal setting goes through all the stages of the lesson in accordance with the GEF. At the same time, functions of motivation of students are assigned to it, as well as stabilization of the process of obtaining knowledge and diagnostics of the work performed. In other words, you can say this: “As the goal was set, the result will be like this”.
Organizing the goal setting phase is not easy. This process will require thinking through the techniques and means that would motivate students for the upcoming activities.
One of the solutions to this technological problem can be selected the following list of actions:
- diagnosis of student goals;
- systematization and subsequent analysis of the identified data;
- the construction of technological lines for obtaining knowledge of schoolchildren and a technological line for the supply of material by the teacher.
Target setting techniques
Passing successively the stages of the lesson on GEF, the teacher at the very first of them should name the topic of the lesson and invite the class to formulate a goal. This can be done using reference verbs. Among them are the following: analyze, study and be able to find out, prove and summarize, compare, consolidate, etc.
Another goal-setting approach involves working on the concept. In this case, the teacher must explain the meanings of all the words of the topic, finding answers in the explanatory dictionary.
The third method of goal-setting offers the teacher to talk with children, aimed at concretization and synthesis of new educational material. Such a dialogue brings children to what they can not yet tell because of their incompetence. In the situation that has arisen, schoolchildren will need additional actions or research. This is the goal of the lesson.
The teacher can also offer children this or that problem situation. This technique leads to the fact that the child discovers a lack of their abilities and knowledge. In this case, the goal will be perceived as a subjective problem.
How can I improve the effectiveness of the lesson? To do this, the teacher must go on the most accessible way, proven long-term practice. In this case, the lesson enters its second stage, which involves the independent work of students. In this time period, which occupies a special place in any school lesson, children acquire knowledge in the process of personal activity.
In this case, the teacher needs only to manage the independent work of their wards. This stage of the lesson becomes a very effective learning tool that:
- in each particular case corresponds to the set didactic goal and tasks to be solved;
- leads students from ignorance to knowledge, forming a certain amount and level of skills and abilities;
- develops in children psychological readiness for systematic self-replenishment of the knowledge gained, as well as the ability to navigate in a huge stream of social and scientific information;
- serves as a serious tool of pedagogical management and leadership over the student’s independent educational activities.
Organization of the second stage of the lesson
GEF put forward certain requirements for the content of independent work, the form of its implementation and purpose. All these instructions allow you to properly organize this stage of the lesson, the main purpose of which is not only obtaining new knowledge, but also developing habits and skills to work.
Independent work can be:
In this case, such tasks can be:
- Reproduced by sample. This will allow the student to remember a certain algorithm of actions in each specific situation and to master them fairly well.
- Performed by the reconstructive variant type. Such independent work is carried out on the basis of the already acquired knowledge, suggesting the search for a specific method of solving new problems.
- Heuristic. Such independent work forms in students the skills and abilities to search for a solution outside the sample known to them.
- Creative. Such works allow students to gain new knowledge, as well as constantly strengthen the skills of their own search.
At this stage of the lesson, children can be offered a variety of types of work with a book, as well as the solution of exercises and tasks.
After the first and second stages of the lesson (according to the GEF) have been completed, the new state standards of general education offer the next step of universal educational activities. It consists of children receiving reflexive skills. At the same time, students should understand the reasons for the success or failure of their learning activities.
There should be no unlucky children in school. The teacher is obliged to notice even the smallest progress of the child forward and support him in time.
Reflection as a stage of the modern lesson (GEF) allows you to support children's activity and creativity. It also has a direct effect on the consciousness of the student.
Reflection is a prerequisite for creating a developing environment in the classroom. And for the teacher, it is not an end in itself. This is a process that prepares children for inner conscious reflection. What does this concept include? Translated from the Latin word "reflection" means nothing more than "turning back."
According to the dictionary of foreign words, this concept means "self-knowledge and reflection on the internal state." The emphasis in this word is put on the syllable "le".
Considering the stages of the lesson on GEF, it is impossible to ignore the reflection. In modern pedagogy, this concept means an introspection of learning activities, as well as its results. Reflection teaches the child to self-esteem, self-control and self-regulation. She forms his habit of thinking about events and various problems. Psychologists associate reflection with the development and formation of a person’s spiritual life. However, it is difficult for a child to learn to control himself without the help of a teacher. It is the teamwork of the teacher and the student that allows to get concrete results that help the student to evaluate their activities in the classroom.
Types of reflection
At the beginning and at the end of the lesson, the establishment of emotional contact with students is of great importance for the teacher. To do this, he can use the reception of the mood of reflection. The easiest option is to show the cards with the image of emoticons. Moreover, the faces depicted in the picture should be cheerful, sad and neutral. In addition, the teacher can offer the children to opt for the sun or a cloud. The first picture will mean a good mood, and the second - a bad one.
Another method of mood reflection is the choice of one of two pictures. One of them depicts a landscape imbued with sadness, and the second - with fun and joy. Pupils should choose a picture that matches their mood.
The next type of reflection is the reflection of activity. It is a comprehension of the techniques and methods of work performed on the educational material. This type is usually applied when checking assignments at the end of a lesson. In this case, students are encouraged to evaluate the results of the lesson in the form of the end of phrases such as: