In the vast and colorful pantheon of the Egyptian gods, Osiris occupies an important place. In ancient Egypt, stretched along the longest Nile, there was neither a coherent mythology, nor a single image of the gods, as it was, for example, among the ancient Greeks. Egyptian pictograms are not completely deciphered, but the myth of the god Osiris is generally known for the records of Plutarch.
The beginning of the life of Osiris
Initially, it was believed that the god Osiris was born in the wilderness that separated the kingdom of the living from the kingdom of the dead, the goddess of heaven, Nuth, from her husband Hebe, who ruled the earth. He had a younger envious and cunning brother Seth, a sister-wife — the wise Isis — and sister Nebehtet, or, in Greek, Nephthys, who was the wife of Set. This couple had no children. The reasons are strange. Either Seth was barren, or Nephthys did not have a vagina. Nevertheless, she gave birth either from Osiris or from Ra the son of Anubis. Inconsistency and lack of logic characteristic of the entire mythological system of Egypt.
The king of Egypt, Osiris, wisely ruled with his country Isis. He was the 4th god after the great-grandfather of Atum, grandfather Shu and father Hebe. Osiris taught the subjects of agriculture, cultivation of orchards and viticulture with songs, not weapons and threats. They made wine from grapes. These representations go to the depths of the tribal society. For the ancient Egyptians, Osiris is the producer god to whom nature is subject.
Sinister Set envied his older brother and wanted to take his place on the throne. He made a beautifully decorated sarcophagus, secretly taking measurements of Osiris, and made a feast. He announced to all those invited that he would give a sarcophagus to the one to whom he would fit. Osiris, unaware of the impending treachery, lay down in him. The lid was quickly closed and sealed with lead and thrown into the Nile. The great river did not take the sarcophagus, but carried it to the shore near Byblos. Immediately, an enormous tree instantly grew, which wrapped itself around a sarcophagus. The ruler of Byblos ordered him to be cut down and brought to the palace. It was made of support for the roof. But it was in the tree that the sarcophagus was located. Isis was at that time languishing in a dungeon, planted there by Seth. But she was helped to escape.
Inconsolable Isis, cutting off her hair (a kind of tonsure as a nun) and putting on mourning, rushed in search of a spouse. She found this tree in the palace and asked to give it to her.
In preparation for the burial, ISIS had inadvertently left the body of her husband without protection. Set according to some sources cut his body into 15 pieces, others at 42, and scattered across Egypt. ISIS decided to put the body to revive the deceased husband to conceive a son. He should grow up to avenge his father. The body was assembled, but was missing one detail, without which married life impossible: her Set was thrown into the water, and it ate fish.
Some sources say that the phallus ISIS made of clay. Her wisdom helped her for a short time to return to life of Osiris. So the couple conceived a son, who was named Mountains. When the Mountains grew up, he fought with Seth and won.
He set the eye of Seth to be devoured by his father, and thereby resurrected him. The earthly world Osiris gave his Mountain, and he went into the afterlife.
Rites of the Priests
Each year, the priests of Isis held a solemn celebration of the reunification of all parts of the body of Osiris. The sacrificial fire was kindled, and around it, the priests danced to the sound of potions and drinks, to the sounds of tambourines, drums and flutes. At the time of the apogee, the main priest exclaimed, “Phallus!”, And many of the servants of Isis sharply knifed themselves with sharp knives, throwing their victim into the fire. Those who survived enjoyed unbelievable respect.
Osiris - the god of the afterlife
Leaving this world the son of the Mountain, Osiris retired to the underworld. Here Osiris is the God who rules over the souls of the dead. In the Palace of Justice is the soul of the deceased person utters an oath, in which he assures all that on earth he did not create evil deeds: do not kill, do not slander, do not steal someone else's property. First, Ra listens to her, then Osiris, the god of this kingdom, then 42 judges, each of whom checks one of the oaths. After that, his soul (the heart in other sources) is placed on one of the scales, and on the other - a feather from the wing of the goddess Maat. If the scales are balanced, then it falls into the heavenly fertile fields, Iaru. The sinner was condemned to complete darkness without light and heat (according to the "Book of the Dead"), or, according to another version, he was devoured by a monster - a lion whose head was a crocodile. Osiris is a god who passively and calmly watched the whole trial procedure.
Over what else Osiris ruled
In the dry period of the life of the farmer froze, and only when the Nile overflowed and brought to the fields muddy sediments, the life of the peasant began again. If we ask the question: "Osiris is the God of what?" – :- the God of rebirth of nature. It was believed that it protects farmers and gave them a plow. The question of "Osiris is the God of what?" is also the answer that it is the God of new life, reborn after the cold winter, agriculture, abundance and fertility. Spring under his protection all bloomed in well-tended farmland, summer fruit, and autumn harvest. The fertilizing power never left him.
What does the god Osiris look like
God was primarily portrayed zoomorphically. He had a bull's head, and his legs were wrapped like mummies. Later, they began to paint him anthropomorphically - in the form of a mummy man with green skin on his face and often green hands. They are free and hold two symbols of power - scepter and flail (heket and neheku) or, otherwise, a chain and hook. On the head is a crown (“atef”), which is similar to a tall narrow hat. Two feathers are attached to it. Osiris is often depicted with a lotus that grows in water and also on a throne under grape-twined trees.
Cult of Osiris
The Egyptian god Osiris was one of the most revered because he gave life to all earthly things. People addressed him often. The biggest religious building was the temples in the Nile Delta in Jeda (in Greek, Busiris) and in Abydos. The cult of the deity originated in Busiris. Pilgrims went to both places from all over Egypt, especially to Abydos. It was buried the first Pharaoh Jed. Later his grave was identified with the tomb of Osiris. Every year there were lush holidays, when the boat of God, made of papyrus, was carried on his hands. So celebrated the victory over his enemies.