Osiris occupies the most important place in the vast and colorful pantheon of the Egyptian gods. In ancient Egypt, stretched across the longest Nile, there was no harmonious mythology, not a single image of the gods, as was, say, the ancient Greeks. Egyptian pictograms to the end are not deciphered, but the myth of the god Osiris is generally known due to the records of Plutarch.
Beginning of the life of Osiris
Originally it was believed that the god Osiris was born in the desert that separated the realm of the living from the kingdom of the dead, the goddess of heaven Nut from her husband Hebe, who ruled the earth. He had a younger envious and insidious brother Seth, a sister-wife - wise Isis - and sister Nebehtet, or, in Greek, Nephthys, who was the wife of Seth. This couple had no children. The reasons are strange. Either Seth was sterile, or Nephthys had no vagina. Nevertheless, she gave birth either from Osiris, or from Ra son Anubis. Contradiction and the lack of logic are characteristic of the whole mythological system of Egypt.
King of Egypt Osiris wisely ruled with Isis his country. He was the 4th god, after great-grandfather Atum, grandfather Shu and father Geb. By hymns, not weapons and threats, Osiris taught his subjects farming, cultivating gardens and viticulture. They made wine from grapes. These ideas go into the depths of the tribal society. For the most ancient Egyptians, Osiris is a producer god, to whom nature is subordinated.
The insidious Seth envied his elder brother and wanted to take his place on the throne. He made a beautifully decorated sarcophagus, secretly taking the measurements from Osiris, and arranged a feast. He announced to all the guests that he would give the sarcophagus to someone to whom it would fit. Osiris, unaware of the impending betrayal, lay down in him. The lid was quickly slammed and sealed with lead and thrown into the Nile. The Great River did not take the sarcophagus, but carried it ashore beside Byblos. Immediately instantly grew a huge tree, which with its roots bared the sarcophagus. The ruler of Bibl gave the order to cut it down and bring it to the palace. It made a support for the roof. But it was in the tree that there was a sarcophagus. Isis was at that time languishing in prison, planted there by Seth. But she was helped to escape.
Inconsolable Isis, cutting off her hair (a kind of tonsure in a nun) and mourning, rushed to find her husband. She found this tree in the palace and asked to give it to her.
The Revival of Osiris
In preparation for the burial, ISIS had inadvertently left the body of her husband without protection. Set according to some sources cut his body into 15 pieces, others at 42, and scattered across Egypt. ISIS decided to put the body to revive the deceased husband to conceive a son. He should grow up to avenge his father. The body was assembled, but was missing one detail, without which married life impossible: her Set was thrown into the water, and it ate fish.
Some sources say that the phallus ISIS made of clay. Her wisdom helped her for a short time to return to life of Osiris. So the couple conceived a son, who was named Mountains. When the Mountains grew up, he fought with Seth and won.
He gave Seth's eye to be eaten by his father and resurrected him. The earthly world Osiris gave to his Mountain, and he himself went into the afterlife.
Each year, the priests of Isis conducted a solemn celebration of the reunification of all parts of the body of Osiris. A sacrificial fire was lit, around him, drugged with potions and drinks, priests danced to the sound of tambourines, drums and flutes. At the moment of apogee, the chief priest exclaimed: "Phallus!" - and many servants of Isis sharpened their knives with sharp knives, throwing their victim into the fire. Those who survived enjoyed incredible respect.
Osiris - the god of the afterlife
Leaving this world the son of the Mountain, Osiris retired to the underworld. Here Osiris is the God who rules over the souls of the dead. In the Palace of Justice is the soul of the deceased person utters an oath, in which he assures all that on earth he did not create evil deeds: do not kill, do not slander, do not steal someone else's property. First, Ra listens to her, then Osiris, the god of this kingdom, then - 42 judges, each of which checks one of the oaths. After that, his soul (the heart in other sources) is placed on one of the scales, and on the other - a feather from the wing of the goddess Maat. If the balance is balanced, then it falls into the paradise of fertile fields, iaru. The sinner was condemned to total darkness without light and heat (according to the Book of the Dead), or, according to another version, he was devoured by a monster - a lion with a crocodile head. Osiris is a god who passively and calmly observed the whole procedure of the court.
On what else Osiris was ruling
In the dry period of the life of the farmer froze, and only when the Nile overflowed and brought to the fields muddy sediments, the life of the peasant began again. If we ask the question: "Osiris is the God of what?" – :- the God of rebirth of nature. It was believed that it protects farmers and gave them a plow. The question of "Osiris is the God of what?" is also the answer that it is the God of new life, reborn after the cold winter, agriculture, abundance and fertility. Spring under his protection all bloomed in well-tended farmland, summer fruit, and autumn harvest. The fertilizing power never left him.
What does the god Osiris look like?
God was first portrayed zoomorphically. He had the head of a bull, and his feet were wrapped, like a mummy. Later he was painted anthropomorphically - in the form of a mummy man with green skin on his face and often with green hands. They are free and hold two symbols of power - the scepter and the chain (the heket and neheku) or, otherwise, the chain and the hook. On the head is a crown ("atef"), which looks like a tall narrow hat. To her are attached two feathers. Osiris was often portrayed with a lotus that grows in the water, as well as on a throne under trees twisted with grapes.
The Cult of Osiris
The Egyptian god Osiris was one of the most revered, for he gave life to all earthly things. People addressed him often. The largest religious structure was the temples in the Nile delta in Jedu (in Greek Busiris) and in Abydos. In Buciris, the cult of the deity was born. In both places from all over Egypt were pilgrims, especially - in Abydos. In it, the first pharaoh Jed was buried. Later, his grave was identified with the tomb of Osiris. Each year, it was a lavish holiday, when the rook of the god, made of papyrus, was carried in his arms. Thus, victories over his enemies were celebrated.