Order of Suvorov - the first military award, which has three stages and bearing the name of the commander. It was established on July 29, 1942, together with the orders of Kutuzov (I and II degrees) and Alexander Nevsky. The resolution on the formation of combat awards for commanders was adopted in June 42nd, when heavy battles were fought in the south of the Soviet Union. At that time, Russian troops, restraining the fierce German offensive, were slowly retreating to the Volga and the Don, and surrounded Sevastopol held out of their last strength.
Why did the order receive the name of a general?
In order to somehow stimulate the generals to the successful conduct of military operations, they decided to change the traditional system of awarding, when practically every person could be awarded with an order or a medal - from a simple Red Army man and a civilian to a marshal. Under the new system, one or another reward could be obtained if you hold a certain position.
At the very beginning of the design, before the Order of Suvorov (WWII) appeared, it was supposed to introduce into circulation the Order of the Red Banner with crossed swords. But then they decided to leave the awards with the names of the great Russian commanders, as it became clear that the patriotism of the Civil War would not go far. After all, army traditions are not even years, but centuries, so they decided to turn to the experience of past times.
Who is Suvorov?
Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov was one of the most famous commanders in the entire centuries-old history of Russia. He participated in more than 60 battles in which he was never defeated. His first victories relate to battles with the Bar Confederation in the mid-18th century, then there were successful operations during the Russian-Turkish war, during the storming of Prague and the suppression of the Polish uprisings, the campaign against Napoleon through the Italian Pyrenees and the Swiss campaign in 1799.
Creation of new combat awards
The above orders were established the next day after Stalin's decree “Not one step back,” which speaks to the understanding of the Supreme Commander of simple truth: morale and patriotism cannot be brought up only by coercion;
To create the Order of Suvorov was attracted a student at the architectural institute P. Skokon, who had already managed to visit the front. It was his copy that became the prototype of the future award. But, on the recommendation of experts, some changes were added on the face of the decals. Thus, the Order of Suvorov, 1st degree, gained a red star over the portrait of the commander, so that he looked different from the 3rd degree award, which had the same color. Also, there were changes in the dimensions of orders - they were reduced by 7 mm.
The Order of Suvorov is made in the form of a five-pointed star, whose faceted rays, in the center - the bezel and the image of Suvorov, made in profile. Above the image of the commander - the inscription with his name and surname, and below - laurel and oak branches, connected by a ribbon.
Orders of varying degrees differ from each other in size, material of manufacture and some details.
The award of the 1st degree was made of platinum and gold, the Order of Suvorov 2 degrees - of gold and silver with the addition of red enamel, and the third degree - entirely of silver.
What was the principle of awarding? At first, the order was worn on the left side of the uniform, as was the Golden Star medal. But later, with an increase in the number of combat awards, it was decided to replace it with a green silk ribbon with orange stripes, whose number corresponded to a degree. Then the order began to mount on the right side.
Prince Alexander Suvorov became famous for being able to defeat the enemy not by quantity, but by skill. Therefore, the order bearing his name was awarded to those military leaders who were able to prevail over a numerically superior opponent.
Order of Suvorov. What was awarded?
The Suvorov Order of the 1st degree honored the commanders of the fronts and armies, their deputies, the chiefs of staff and the commanders of the armed forces for the excellent organization and conduct of military operations with the elimination of the enemy by the smallest forces, for encircling the enemy who exceeded the number, and also for defeating the enemy military units and seizing his weapons.
The Suvorov Order of the 2nd degree was awarded to the commanders of corps, divisions and brigades, as well as their deputies and chiefs of staff for defeating the minimum forces of enemy divisions, brigades and army units equivalent to corps.
Order of Suvorov 3 degrees was given to the commanders of regiments, battalions and companies, as well as their chiefs of staff for organizing and carrying out the elimination of the enemy, exceeding in strength, for retaining employed defensive lines, professional use of all military means to repel enemy attacks and go on the offensive.
In general, the award had an “attacking” character, and only the Order of the 3rd degree took into account defensive actions, but subject to further counterattack.
Order of Suvorov - list of awarded military leaders
The first award ceremony took place in December 1942. The commander of the 24th Tank Corps, Major General Badanov, was awarded the Order by the Order, who conducted a complicated maneuver in the enemy's rear, defeating a military airfield along the way. It was from him that the Germans supplied the army to Paulus, surrounded in Stalingrad.
Thanks to this rapid raid, more than 400 aircraft were destroyed, a huge number of armored vehicles and enemy soldiers. After the maneuver, part of the corps moved in an organized manner to their defensive positions.
This is one of many examples of how the Order of Suvorov was awarded. For what was awarded and who exactly, we will see later in the description.
The award of the first degree of distinction
The order of this degree was first awarded to marshals and generals who distinguished themselves in the battles at Stalingrad and Leningrad in January 43rd. Among the twenty-three awardees were such famous commanders as Marshal G. Zhukov, commander of artillery N. Voronov, representative of the Stavka A. Vasilevsky, commanders of the fronts N. Vatutin, K. Moskalenko, V. Chuykov and other outstanding commanders of the time.
Also this high award was awarded to the Frunze Military Academy and the Military Academy of the General Staff, and Stalin also had it.
Suvorov Order of the 2nd degree: awarded
This award was presented 2863 times, among them - more than 600 military units and units. For example, the 1st Czechoslovak Infantry Brigade (Commander General Ludvik Svoboda), which participated in the liberation of Kiev. Subsequently, the general became president of Czechoslovakia.
Heroes who have received the award of the 3rd degree
Awarded the Order of the 3rd degree: the first to receive this distinction was Major Garanin in early 1943. In total, the order of this degree was awarded to 391 people, among them 20 commanders were honored to receive the award three times.
The Order of the 3rd degree was awarded more than 4,000 times, among them 849 - to combat units and subunits.
In total, the Suvorov Order was presented 7266 times, including 1528 - to combat units, more than 80 times - to generals and officers of various types of troops. Also in the cavalier of the Order of Suvorov is the commander of the French military formations, General Georges Delautre de Tassigny, who received the insignia of the 1st degree in the summer of the 45th.
Award after the Great Patriotic War
After the end of the Patriotic War there was no mass delivery of the Order of Suvorov. The only cases are the presentation of the award for “international missions”.
But the story of the Order of Suvorov does not end there. To date, this distinction is still present in the government awards of the Russian Federation, only outwardly, it has undergone some changes.
Now the Russian Order of Suvorov is made in the form of a straight four-pointed gilded cross (like a Maltese cross). Between the wide rays - narrow silver. In the center of the cross is a silver medallion, which depicts the gilded profile of Alexander Suvorov. Under the portrait, crossed crossed laurel and oak branches entwined with a ribbon. In a circle of awards is an inscription with the name of the commander, filled with red enamel.
In modern Russia, the presentation of the Order of Suvorov takes place according to the same principles as during the Patriotic War, only now honors the commanders and soldiers of the ground forces, which is natural, since Suvorov was a “popular” military leader, who shared all the common soldiers . But the abolition of the 1st and 2nd degrees of this order is a mistake.
In conclusion, I would like to add that the breast badge of the name of Suvorov at one time enjoyed honor and respect, because in order to get it, it was necessary to show extraordinary leadership talent and real courage of the Russian soldier. All the enemy warriors recalled these qualities of the Russians with honor. Order of Suvorov was not handed out to everyone. They were really awarded heroes and defenders of our Fatherland.