The Order of Suvorov is the first military award, which has three stages and is named after the commander. It was established on July 29, 1942, together with the orders of Kutuzov (I and II degrees) and Alexander Nevsky. The resolution on the formation of military awards for the command staff was adopted in June 42, when heavy fighting took place in the south of the Soviet Union. At that time, the Russian troops, restraining the furious offensive of the German troops, slowly retreated to the Volga and the Don, and surrounded Sevastopol was kept out of its last strength.
Why did the order receive the name of the general?
In order to somehow stimulate the generals to successfully conduct military operations, they decided to change the traditional reward system, when almost every person could be awarded with any medal or order, from a simple Red Army man and a civilian to a marshal. According to the new system, one or another reward could be obtained if you occupy a certain position.
At the very beginning of the design, before the Order of Suvorov (WWII) appeared, it was planned to put into circulation the Order of the Red Banner with crossed swords. But then they decided to leave awards with the names of the great Russian commanders, as it became clear that you will not go far enough in the patriotism of the times of the Civil War. After all, army traditions are formed not even for years, but for centuries, so they decided to turn to the experience of past times.
Who is Suvorov?
Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov was one of the most famous generals in the whole of the centuries-old history of Russia. He participated in more than 60 battles, in which he was never defeated. His first victories relate to the battles with the Confederation of Bars in the mid-18th century, followed by successful operations during the Russo-Turkish War, the storming of Prague and the suppression of Polish uprisings, the campaign against Napoleon through the Italian Pyrenees and the Swiss campaign in 1799.
Creation of new military awards
The above-mentioned orders were instituted the day after Stalin's decree "Not a step back", which speaks about understanding the Supreme Commander-in-Chief a simple truth: morale and patriotism can not be brought up by coercion alone; it is necessary to show the example of valor and fortitude with which the entire history of the Russian state is permeated.
The creation of the Order of Suvorov involved a student of the architectural institute P. Skokon who had already visited the front. It was his specimen that became the prototype of the future award. But, on the recommendation of experts, some changes were added on the front side of the decals. Thus, the Order of Suvorov, 1st degree, found a red star above the portrait of the commander, so that he looked different from the award of the third degree, which had the same color. Also there were changes in the size of the orders - they were reduced by 7 mm.
The Order of Suvorov is made in the form of a five-pointed star with faceted beams, in the center - a bezel and an image of Suvorov, made in profile. Above the picture of the commander is an inscription with his name and surname, and below - laurel and oak branches connected by a ribbon.
Orders of varying degrees differ from each other in size, material of manufacture and some details.
The award of the 1st degree was made of platinum and gold, the Order of Suvorov 2 degrees - of gold and silver with the addition of red enamel, and the third degree - entirely of silver.
By what principle was the rewarding? Initially, the order was worn on the left side of the uniform, as was the Gold Star medal. But later, with an increase in the number of military awards, it was decided to replace it with a green silk ribbon with orange strips, whose number corresponded to the degree. Then the order was fastened to the right side.
Prince Alexander Suvorov became famous for being able to defeat the enemy not by quantity, but by skill. Therefore, the order bearing his name was awarded to those commanders who could defeat the numerically superior rival.
Order of Suvorov. For what rewarded?
The Suvorov Order of the 1st degree was awarded to the commanders of fronts and armies, their deputies, chiefs of staff and commanders of the branches of the armed forces for the excellent organization and conduct of military operations with the elimination of the enemy by the smallest forces, for encircling the enemy, which surpassed the number, and also for the defeat of enemy military units and the seizure of its weapons.
The Suvorov Order of the 2nd degree was awarded to the commanders of corps, divisions and brigades, as well as their deputies and chiefs of staff for inflicting a defeat on enemy forces, brigades and army units equivalent to corps by minimal forces.
The Order of Suvorov of the 3rd degree was given to the commanders of regiments, battalions and companies, as well as to their chiefs of staff for organizing and carrying out the liquidation of the enemy exceeding in force, for retaining occupied defensive lines, the professional use of all combat assets to repel enemy attacks and the transition to an offensive.
In general, the award had an "attacking" character, and only the Order of the third degree took into account the defensive actions, but provided further counterattack.
Order of Suvorov - list of awarded military leaders
The first award ceremony took place in December 1942. Awarding the Order was awarded to the commander of the 24th Tank Corps, Major-General Badanov, who conducted a complex maneuver behind enemy lines, destroying the military airfield on the way. It was from him that the Germans supplied the army of Paulus, surrounded in Stalingrad.
Thanks to this rapid raid, more than 400 aircraft were destroyed, a huge number of armored vehicles and soldiers of the enemy. After the maneuver, the corps part organizedly retreated to its defensive positions.
This is one of many examples of the criteria for awarding the Order of Suvorov. For what was awarded and who exactly, we will see later in the description.
Presentation of the first degree
The order of this degree was first awarded to marshals and generals who distinguished themselves in the battles of Stalingrad and Leningrad in January of the 43rd. Among the twenty-three awarded were such famous military leaders as Marshal G. Zhukov, artillery commander N. Voronov, representative of the Stavka A. Vasilevsky, commanders of the fronts N. Vatutin, K. Moskalenko, V. Chuikov and other outstanding generals of the time.
Also this high award was awarded to the Military Academy named after Frunze and the Military Academy of the General Staff, possessed it and Stalin.
Suvorov Order of the 2nd degree: awarded
This award was awarded to 2,863 times, among them - more than 600 military units and units. For example, the 1 st Czechoslovak Infantry Brigade (commanded by General Ludvik Svoboda), which participated in the liberation of Kiev. Subsequently, the general became president of Czechoslovakia.
Heroes who received the 3rd degree award
Awarded with the Order of the 3rd degree: Major Garanin in early 1943 became the first to receive this distinction. In total, an order of this degree was awarded to 391 people, among them 20 commanders were awarded the honor of receiving the award three times.
The Order of the 3rd degree was awarded more than 4000 times, among them 849 - to combat units and subunits.
In total, the Suvorov Order was awarded to 7266 times, including 1,528 to combat units, more than 80 times to generals and officers of various combat arms. Also in the cavalry of the Order of Suvorov is the commander of the French military formations, General Georges Delatre de Tassigny, who received the first-degree insignia in the summer of the 45th.
Award after the Great Patriotic War
After the end of the Patriotic War, the mass decoration of the Order of Suvorov was not. The only cases are awarding the award for "international missions".
But the story of the Order of Suvorov does not end there. To date, this sign of distinction is still present in government awards of the Russian Federation, only externally it has undergone some changes.
Now the Russian order of Suvorov is made in the form of a straight four-pointed gilded cross (similar to Maltese). Between wide beams - narrow silver. In the center of the cross there is a silver medallion on which is depicted the gilded profile of Alexander Suvorov. Under the portrait are crossed laurel and oak branches, entwined with a ribbon. On the circle of the award there is an inscription with the name of the commander, filled with red enamel.
In modern Russia, the awarding of the Order of Suvorov proceeds on the same principles as during the Patriotic War, only now the award is honored by the commanders and soldiers of the ground forces, which is natural, since Suvorov was a "people's" commander who shared all the burdens of military life with ordinary soldiers . But the abolition of the 1 st and 2 nd degrees of this order is a mistake.
In conclusion, I would like to add that the chest badge of Suvorov's name had once been respected and respected, since in order to receive it, it was necessary to show outstanding military talent and the true courage of a Russian soldier. With respect to these qualities Russians reckoned with honor all the enemy soldiers. The Order of Suvorov was not distributed to all in a row. They were awarded really heroes and defenders of our Fatherland.