Experiments at home are a great way to acquaint children with the basics of physics and chemistry, and to facilitate understanding of complex abstract laws and terms with the help of a visual demonstration. Moreover, for their implementation it is not necessary to acquire expensive reagents or special equipment. After all, without thinking, we do experiments every day at home - from adding slaked soda to the dough to connecting batteries to the flashlight. Read on to find out how easy, simple and safe to conduct interesting experiments.
Chemical experiments at home
Immediately in the head there is the image of a professor with a glass bulb and scorched eyebrows? Do not worry, our chemical experiments at home are completely safe, interesting and useful. Thanks to them, the child will easily remember what exo- and endothermic reactions are and what is the difference between them.
So, let's make hatching dinosaur eggs, which can be successfully used as bathroom bombs.
For the experience we need:
- small dinosaur figures;
- baking soda;
- vegetable oil;
- lemon acid;
- food coloring or liquid watercolor paints.
The order of the experiment
- Pour ½ cup of soda into a small bowl and add about ¼ tsp. liquid paints (or dissolve 1-2 drops of food coloring in ¼ tsp. of water), mix the soda with your fingers to get a uniform color.
- Add 1 tbsp. l citric acid. Mix the dry ingredients thoroughly.
- Add 1 tsp. vegetable oil.
- You should have a crumbly dough that barely clumps together when pressed. If it does not want to stick together at all, then slowly add by ¼ tsp. oil until you achieve the desired consistency.
- Now take a dinosaur figure and stick it with dough in the shape of an egg. It will be very fragile at the beginning, so it should be postponed overnight (minimum 10 hours) to harden.
- Then you can start a fun experiment: type water in the bathroom and throw an egg into it. It will fiercely hiss, dissolving in water. When touched, it will be cold, because it is an endothermic reaction between acid and alkali, with absorption of heat from the environment.
Please note that the bathroom may become slippery due to the addition of oil.
Experiments at home, the results of which can be touched and touched, are very popular with children. These include this fun project, which ends with a large amount of dense fluffy colored foam.
For it will need:
- safety glasses for the child;
- dry active yeast;
- warm water;
- hydrogen peroxide 6%;
- dishwashing detergent or liquid soap (non-antibacterial);
- plastic glitter (necessarily non-metallic);
- food colorings;
- 0.5 liter bottle (it is best to take a bottle with a wide bottom, for greater stability, but ordinary plastic will also work).
The experience itself is extremely simple:
- 1 tsp dry yeast dissolve in 2 tbsp. l warm water.
- In a bottle placed in a sink or dishes with high sides, pour ½ cup of hydrogen peroxide, a drop of dye, glitter and some dishwashing liquid (a few taps on the dispenser).
- Insert a funnel and pour in the yeast. The reaction will begin immediately, so act quickly.
Yeast acts as a catalyst and accelerates the release of hydrogen by peroxide, and when the gas interacts with soap, it creates a huge amount of foam. This is an exothermic reaction, with the release of heat, so if you touch the bottle after the "eruption" stops, it will be warm. As the hydrogen evaporates immediately, there simply remains a lather with which to play.
Experiments in physics at home
Did you know that lemon can be used as a battery? True, very low-power. Experiments at home with citrus will demonstrate to children the work of the battery and a closed electrical circuit.
For the experiment you will need:
- lemons - 4 pcs .;
- galvanized nails - 4 pcs .;
- small pieces of copper (you can take coins) - 4 pcs .;
- alligator clips with small wires (about 20 cm) - 5 pcs .;
- a small light bulb or flashlight - 1 pc.
Let there be light
Here's how to conduct the experience:
- Roll on a hard surface, then lightly squeeze the lemons, so that they put the juice inside the skin.
- Insert one galvanized nail and one piece of copper into each lemon. Line them up.
- Connect one end of the wire to a galvanized nail, and the other to a piece of copper in the other lemon. Repeat this step until all fruits are interconnected.
- When you are done, you should have only one nail and one piece of copper that are not connected to anything. Prepare your light bulb, determine the polarity of the battery.
- Connect the remaining piece of copper (plus) and nail (minus) to the plus and minus of the flashlight. Thus, the chain of connected lemons is a battery.
- Turn on the light bulb that will work on the energy of the fruit!
To repeat such experiments at home, potatoes will also work, especially green ones.
How it works? Citric acid contained in a lemon reacts with two different metals, which causes the ions to move in one direction, creating an electric current. According to this principle, all chemical sources of electricity work.
It is not necessary to stay indoors to conduct experiments for children at home. Some experiments will be better on the street, and it will not be necessary to remove anything after their completion. These include interesting experiences at home with air bubbles, and not simple, but huge.
To make them will need:
- 2 wooden sticks 50-100 cm long (depending on the age and height of the child);
- 2 metal screwed ears;
- 1 metal washer;
- 3 m cotton cord;
- bucket with water;
- any detergent - for dishes, shampoo, liquid soap.
Here's how to conduct spectacular experiments for children at home:
- Screw metal ears into the ends of the sticks.
- Cut the cotton cord into two parts, 1 and 2 m long. It is possible not to adhere to these measures, but it is important that the ratio between them is 1 to 2.
- Put a washer on a long piece of rope so that it sags evenly in the center, and tie both ropes to the ears on the sticks, forming a loop.
- In a bucket of water, stir a small amount of detergent.
- Gently immersing the loop on the sticks into the liquid, start blowing giant bubbles. To separate them from each other, gently bring the ends of the two sticks together.
What is the scientific component of this experience? Explain to the children that the bubbles are held by surface tension - the force of attraction that holds the molecules of any liquid together. Its action is manifested in the fact that spilled water is collected in droplets that tend to acquire a spherical shape, as the most compact of all existing in nature, or in that water, when it is poured, is collected in cylindrical flows. In a bubble, a layer of liquid molecules is clamped on both sides by soap molecules, which increase its surface tension when distributed over the surface of the bubble, and do not allow it to evaporate quickly. As long as the sticks are kept open, the water is held in the form of a cylinder, as soon as they are closed - it tends to a spherical shape.
These are the experiments at home can be carried out with children.