Experiences at home are a great way to introduce children to the basics of physics and chemistry, and to facilitate understanding of complex abstract laws and terms through visual demonstrations. And for their conduct does not need to acquire expensive reagents or special equipment. After all, without hesitation, every day we conduct experiments at home - from adding hydrated soda to dough before connecting the batteries to the flashlight. Read on to find out how easy, simple and safe to conduct interesting experiments.
Chemical experiments at home
Immediately in my head there is the image of a professor with a glass bulb and scorched eyebrows? Do not worry, our chemical experiments at home are completely safe, interesting and useful. Thanks to them, the child will easily remember what is exo-and endothermic reactions and what is the difference between them.
So, let's make hatching dinosaur eggs, which can be successfully used as bombs for the bathroom.
For the experience we need:
- small figures of dinosaurs;
- baking soda;
- vegetable oil;
- lemon acid;
- food coloring or liquid watercolor paints.
The order of the experiment
- Pour ½ cup of soda into a small bowl and add about ¼ tsp. liquid paints (or dissolve 1-2 drops of food coloring in ¼ tsp water), mix the soda with your fingers to get a uniform color.
- Add 1 tbsp. l. citric acid. Thoroughly mix the dry ingredients.
- Add 1 tsp. vegetable oil.
- You should have a crumbly dough that hardly clicks together when pressed. If it does not want to stick together at all, then slowly add ¼ tsp. oil until you achieve the desired consistency.
- Now take a figurine of a dinosaur and clothe it with an egg-shaped dough. It will be very fragile at first, so it should be put aside for the night (minimum 10 hours) to harden.
- Then you can start a fun experiment: enter the water in the bathroom and toss it in the egg. It will violently sizzle, dissolving in water. When you touch it is cold, because it is endothermic reaction between acid and alkali, heat absorption from the environment.
Note that the bath can become slippery due to the addition of oil.
Toothpaste for an elephant
Experiences in the home, the result of which you can touch and touch, very like children. This includes this amusing project, which ends with a lot of dense lush colored foam.
To conduct it, you will need:
- protective glasses for the child;
- dry active yeast;
- warm water;
- hydrogen peroxide 6%;
- dish soap or liquid soap (not antibacterial);
- plastic glitter (necessarily non-metallic);
- food colorings;
- a bottle of 0.5 liters (it is best to take a bottle with a wide bottom, for greater stability, but the usual plastic one will do).
The experience itself is very simple:
- 1 teaspoon dry yeast dissolve in 2 tbsp of warm water.
- In a bottle placed in a sink or dishes with high sides, pour ½ cup of hydrogen peroxide, a drop of dye, sparkles and a little dishwashing liquid (a few clicks on the dispenser).
- Insert the funnel and pour in the yeast. The reaction will begin immediately, so act quickly.
Yeasts act as a catalyst and accelerate the release of hydrogen peroxide, and when the gas interacts with soap, it creates a huge amount of foam. This is an exothermic reaction, with the release of heat, so if you touch the bottle after the "eruption" has stopped, it will be warm. Since hydrogen immediately evaporates, there is just a soapy foam, with which you can play.
Experiments in physics at home
Do you know that a lemon can be used as a battery? True, very low power. Experiments at home with citrus show the children the work of a battery and a closed electrical circuit.
For the experiment, you will need:
- lemons - 4 pieces;
- galvanized nails - 4 pieces;
- small pieces of copper (you can take coins) - 4 pcs .;
- alligator clamps with wires of small length (about 20 cm) - 5 pcs .;
- small lamp or flashlight - 1 pc.
Let there be light
Here's how to conduct the experiment:
- Roll on a hard surface, then lightly squeeze the lemons so they let the juice inside the skin.
- Insert one galvanized nail and one piece of copper into each lemon. Place them on one line.
- Connect one end of the wire to the galvanized nail, and the other to a piece of copper in another lemon. Repeat this step until all the fruits are joined together.
- When you are finished, you must have one 1 nail and 1 piece of copper, which are not connected to anything. Prepare your light bulb, determine the polarity of the battery.
- Connect the remaining piece of copper (plus) and the nail (minus) to the plus and minus of the flashlight. Thus, a chain of connected lemons is a battery.
- Turn on the light bulb, which will work on the energy of the fruit!
To repeat such experiments at home, the potato, especially the green one, also fits.
How it works? The citric acid contained in the lemon reacts with two different metals, which causes the ions to move in one direction, creating an electric current. All chemical sources of electric power work on this principle.
Don't have to stay in the room to conduct experiments for kids at home. Some experiments will be better on the street and will not have anything to clean up on completion. These include interesting experiments at home with air bubbles, and huge.
To make them necessary:
- 2 wooden poles 50-100 cm long (depending on the age and height of the child);
- 2 metal screwed eyelets;
- 1 metal washer;
- 3 m of cotton cord;
- bucket with water;
- any washing - for utensils, shampoo, liquid soap.
Here's how to conduct spectacular experiments for children at home:
- Screw the metal tabs into the ends of the sticks.
- Cut the cotton cord into two parts, 1 and 2 meters long. You can not exactly adhere to these measurements, but it is important that a proportion of 1 to 2 is kept between them.
- On a long piece of rope, put on the washer, so that it evenly sags in the center, and tie both ropes to the lugs on the sticks, forming a loop.
- In a bucket of water, stir in a small amount of detergent.
- Gently immerse the loop on the sticks in the liquid, start blowing out giant bubbles. To separate them from each other, gently pull the ends of the two sticks together.
What is the scientific component of this experience? Explain to children that bubbles are held by surface tension - the force of attraction that keeps molecules of any liquid together. Its effect is that the spilled water is collected in droplets that tend to become spherical, as the most compact of all existing in nature, or that water, when poured, collects into cylindrical streams. In a bubble, a layer of liquid molecules on both sides is clamped by soap molecules, which increase its surface tension when distributed across the bubble surface, and do not allow it to quickly evaporate. While sticks are kept open, the water is retained in the form of a cylinder, as soon as they are closed - it tends to a spherical shape.
Here such experiments at home can be done with children.