Initially, the term "oprichnina" was called the land of the dead wives of the nobles, and the widow's land. Under Ivan the terrible the meaning of the concept has changed, oprichnina became known as the lands belonging to the king, as well as a period in the history of the Russian state. Interesting stage in the history of the Russian state is the oprichnina of Ivan the terrible. Briefly about it in this article.
Tsar Ivan the terrible (1530-1584) is a very unusual historical person, one of the most memorable and vivid images in the history of Russia. Only now have most of our contemporaries it causes negative emotions and is associated with oppression, repression, restriction of human rights and cruelty. But do not forget about the good deeds of the king, he was crowned the first of Russian rulers in the Kingdom, and not to reign, he completed the design of absolutism in Russia that was necessary at the time. And it contributed to a significant expansion of the boundaries of the country.
But what ruined his reputation among the modern inhabitants? Probably the main reason for this – the policy of oprichnina. And it's hard not to agree fully weighed and considered it is impossible to name. For many researchers, its main characteristic is cruelty. But when you consider the mentality of society in Russia the sixteenth century, but also the political situation at court that the king was young, it all becomes quite understandable. Apparently, democratic measures, namely the creation of Elected Parliament and the convening of the provincial Council, was ineffective.
Compared to the first period of the reign of the oprichnina of Ivan the terrible, in short, was not policy, working for the benefit of the population. Many historians wonder why the king turned to such drastic measures and not whether the oprichnina cause of the Troubles. In any case, if to speak about the prerequisites of the oprichnina, it is necessary to consider not only the political situation but also the identity of Ivan the terrible.
The beginning of the oprichnina
The causes of the oprichnina of Ivan the terrible is to look in the childhood of the king. Although officially the beginning of the oprichnina policy was related to the events of 1565, when the Emperor accused the ancient boyar families of treason and was forced to abdicate. If you understand the logic of this act was the following: Tsar Ivan the terrible agreed to return to the capital on the throne while respecting the subjects of the three conditions: resolution without trial to be executed for treason
The oprichnina of Ivan the Terrible: briefly about the main things
In December 1564, the king quite unexpectedly commanded to gather his sons, wife, confidant, and went to Alexander suburb, taking with them more and all the Treasury and many valuable masterpieces of icon painting. A month later, Metropolitan Athanasius received a letter from the Emperor, where was listed all the crimes and treason of boyars. In this document, he wrote that he could no longer endure these things, to simple people was sent a different letter where Ivan the Fourth assured the people that the evil they do not hold that they are not was the reason for his departure.
Then proceeded to the suburb, where dwelt the king and the nobles, and the Metropolitan, and ordinary people. All with a common goal: to urge the king to rule again. With tears in the eyes of the people begged him to return and asked to forgive. Ivan the terrible reign back, but only demanded to fulfil the three conditions mentioned above. Then began the oprichnina.
Essence of the phenomenon
The rich, fertile and profitable land was introduced by the king in his oprichnina. And there is a new social phenomenon “oprichnina corps” – a thousand young and strong people of noble origin who became the personal army of the king, received for his services, except for salaries, and even the best plots of land, evicting those whom they rightfully belonged to before that.
And here's the apparent absolutism to the full, a king alone decide all questions relating to the internal policies of the state, the Livonian war had to take care of dumnyi boyars. Guardsmen were required to perform only two functions: to protect the Emperor and get rid of the traitors. On horses they raced through the capital's streets with a broom and a dog's head attached to the saddle. It was a symbol that they are ruthlessly cutting the heads off of traitors and to sweep treason from the country. The oprichnina of Ivan the terrible, in short, the period was sad and frightening.
Cheating (real and imaginary) and really struggled very severely. People who were suspected of this crime, were executed, their property was confiscated. After some time we were subjected to repression not only individuals or families, and even entire villages. In this sense, suffered Novgorod, here at a time were killed three thousand people, and all because the king of Novgorod was suspected of conspiracy with Poland.
Changed the commanders of the guardsmen, and the meaning has not changed, with fire and sword spread terror in the country. What would people kith, even noble, even the Lord, and even if the peasant, the threat felt then, and it lasted for seven years.
Fortunately, the oprichnina had to be canceled, it led to the economic ruin of the country, and besides, the Russian government lost the war, and the Khan decided to go to war with Russia.
The consequences of the oprichnina Ivan the Terrible
The policy of the oprichnina of Ivan the terrible led to very unfortunate consequences. She brought the country into a severe economic crisis. Many villages were started as a result of the ruin of the nobles, the boyars and peasants, about ninety percent of the arable land was not used. In the social sphere was also a huge problem, the demographics of the country as a result extremely unreasonable and suspicious policy of the king suffered greatly. Dead these seven years, there were about fifteen thousand people.