Each person sooner or later wants to explore the advertising industry. In this article, we examine in detail everything related to the concept of "advertising". Definition, the types of this phenomenon will also be considered carefully. First of all, of course, you need to remember that advertising is part of marketing communications. It defines the boundaries in which the dissemination of non-personalized information paid for by a popular sponsor is made in order to draw attention to the advertised item, to maintain or generate interest in it.
In all likelihood, advertising in human society appeared simultaneously with trade. Its existence in ancient times confirms the Egyptian papyrus, which is inscribed announcement of the upcoming sale of a slave. Previously, advertising took place in written and oral announcements praising a particular product or service. Oral advertising was promoted by various kinds of barkers, and writing - papyrus scrolls, wax tablets, inscriptions on roadside stones and on buildings.
Perhaps the production of advertising would never have acquired such tremendous popularity if Adam's descendants had not once discovered for themselves the era of mass communications. The first steps in this area made typography.
The next important event is the invention and subsequent popularization to the middle of the nineteenth century throughout the Earth art of photography. The photos served as irrefutable proof of the benefits of the highly praised product. There was a profession "advertising manager". But in the global advertising business, the most ambitious events occurred in the twentieth century. It is the twentieth century that is called the “PR age”: after all, at that time there were serious changes in the development of advertising technologies.
By the way, only in the twentieth century, some types of advertising have received enormous distribution. And only because the increase in global industrial production has increased significantly. And the means of creating and distributing advertising have been improved and updated. Thus, multicolor printing, satellite communications, analogue, and then digital radio and television broadcasting, computers, the Internet appeared.
Not lagging behind the pace of scientific and technical evolution, the effectiveness of the “engine of trade” is increasing: it is becoming more and more professionally organized and of high quality.
Today, the propaganda practice has been transformed into an exceptional social institution that provides for the need for advertising support. The industrial base of this institute consists of a set of activities that are called the “advertising industry”.
This definition was formed in the modern economy in the period of acquisition of an advertising movement of a mass character. The unerring campaigning, the systematic interrelation of the advertising market subjects with participants in diverse economic sectors, the presence of enterprises that manufacture branding and provide advertising services, suggests that PR has acquired features of the industry.
In order for us to understand the definition of advertising, we will study its most important parameters. William Wells singled out seven main functions of the “engine of commerce”:
- Advertising should form a brand image.
- It creates brand and product awareness.
- Informs about the brand or product.
- Persuade customers.
- Advertising to the accomplishment of action creates incentives.
- Provides a reminder.
- Consolidates previous acquisition experience.
Types of advertising
Advertising is divided into a huge number of species. Determining the goals of advertising is a rather scrupulous occupation, so now let's take a look at those types of advertising that are classified according to their intended purpose:
- Commercial (economic) advertising. The purpose of this type of public relations becomes the consumer, who is a potential buyer: if you offer the product to him, you can receive income in return.
- Social advertising, as a rule, does not fit into the scope of the tasks of the economy. It is used by charitable or socially beneficial organizations to popularize a healthy lifestyle among the population, support low-income families, fight to save life on earth, popularize foundations and community organizations that help people, in particular toddlers.
- Political advertising (including election campaign). Today, it is a means of fighting for votes, and it is it that helps the majority of politicians and parties to win a place in power.
The definition of advertising for specific purposes is presented in the following description:
- Counter-advertising is a refutation of unfair PR. In Russia, for dishonest declarations, the former federal law on advertising in 1995 provided for punishment as an article.
- Anti-advertising refers to information designed not to increase, but to reduce interest or to compromise enterprises, trademarks, products.
- Specs spots (there is no translation into Russian) - “promotional” videos made by private individuals, perceived by the viewer as official advertising.
Now consider the main types of advertising, which is classified by place and type of placement. Marketing communications are divided into ATL-and BTL-segments. What is ATL advertising? It includes the following traditional types of advertising: printing, advertising in the media, the UN (external and internal). The remaining species are attributed to BTL communications.
We study advertising in the media. The most popular and generally accepted type of activity in this area is media campaigning:
- Television (ad breaks, video clips in ad units, advertisements (for example, in teletext), message in the running line, sponsorship, virtual campaigning).
- Printed This type is used in the press, distributed using prints, stickers, leaflets, business cards.
- Radio. This type includes videos, sometimes “jeans”, promoted as “advertising”.
- Internet advertising. In this case, advertising takes place on the Internet: banners, text blocks, blogs, contextual advertising, pixel, selling texts, "tag cloud" and so on.
And what is outdoor advertising? This is outdoor advertising, which is usually placed on special stationary or temporary structures that are located in open space, on the external surfaces of buildings, buildings, on elements of street equipment, at gas stations, above roads, highways, and sidewalks.
Outdoor advertising is divided into street and blichfang transport. In general, there are a huge number of options for placing street ads: billboards and citylights are considered the most popular of them. Transport advertising is placed on buses, trolley buses, trams, on private cars, in the subway. It can be both internal and external.
Indoor advertising is usually called internal. This category includes indoor ads. They can be seen at retail outlets, train stations and airports, in business centers, cinemas, places of entertainment and sports, elevators, entrances, medical and educational institutions, and so on.
Consider BTL advertising. The effectiveness of this type of advertising is quite high. It is used, as a rule, in the following cases:
- As mail direct mail.
- In the process of reference service.
- In the form of product placement - the introduction of advertising products or services in the storyline of films or other products of the entertainment industry.
- Fan agitation.
- Viral advertising is often called “word of mouth”. It is information transmitted from person to person.
- Gross-promotion - cross PR of two or more products or services based on mutual benefit.
- It is sometimes placed in payment terminals in the form of videos.
By the way, many types of advertising in marketing would look flawed if they didn’t have an exhortational variety that forms selective demand.
Role in the present society
What is the role of advertising in the modern world? Oh, she has many missions! Here they are:
- Economic (income generation).
- Social (achievement of goals useful to society).
- Ideological. It is a factor influencing the formation and formation of a person’s worldview.
- Psychological. As a rule, it affects the dreams and desires of the buyer, without affecting his mind.
- Educational. Looking through ads or studying the introduction of new technologies, which are described in the video, a person can extract information from absolutely all spheres of life.
- Aesthetic, or cultural advertising. In many posters, the sounds and colors that influence a person in such a way that he will pay more attention to them or have a desire to respond to the offer are very well chosen.
Very often, various political and financial interests clash in advertising. The consumer is interested in reducing its quantity and reducing obsession. The manufacturer, on the contrary, constantly increases both the amount of advertising and the audience reach. Of course, compromise solutions are used here, for example, on real estate objects, advertisements are placed on mutually beneficial terms between homeowner associations and property owners.
It is noteworthy that the interests of society require to protect consumers from unfair and false advertising. These same interests stimulate sales, the basic means of which is precisely PR. In general, they are contradictory and require adjustment. The law on advertising in any country is a kind of compromise between the above interests.
Consider legal restrictions. Many types of advertising in marketing are limited by volume (share), place, method and time of distribution. As a rule, a ban is imposed on obviously unethical, false, poor quality and other inappropriate information. Very often, the activities of distributors and manufacturers of advertising is licensed.
The federal law “On Advertising” in Russia regulates commercial and social propaganda. The election campaign is controlled by the law on elections, and political - by the federal laws “On public organizations” and “On political parties”. For violations in this area can bring to administrative responsibility.
It should be noted that in many countries it is impossible to advertise specific products, if they do not have an inscription reminiscent of the harm that these products cause to human health. This applies to alcoholic beverages and tobacco products.
In many countries, the manufacture of advertising of this type is prohibited. It is known, by the way, that it is too difficult to define a hidden campaign, as well as the fact that it includes product placement. Unlike other hidden PR, it is usually allowed.
Positive and negative arguments
It should be noted that determining the effectiveness of advertising is a rather complicated task: usually, the assessment of the quality of a material is part of the process of analyzing communicative efficiency. Consider just the positive aspects of the advertising industry:
- PR is a part of unified marketing communications, therefore it raises the efficiency of the enterprise.
- Promotes mass consumption, which is necessary for in-line production. It acts as a mandatory factor involved in the process of lowering prices.
- If you use a separation strategy, a complex of marketing communications, including advertising, allows you to get feedback on the focus on a specific sales sector, achieving profitability and business continuity.
- Being a part of marketing integrated communications, agitation develops modern technologies, increases in the economy the demand for advertised products, thereby increasing the activity of entrepreneurs, living standards and economic growth.
- Contributes to an increase in the general cultural level of the population.
- PR fights against chauvinism, pushes people to familiarize themselves with the values of other cultures, and contributes to globalization.
- Advertising impact helps to move from material consumption to spiritual.
But if advertising is evaluated from a legal and ethical point of view, we will see the following negative picture:
- All types of advertising offer customers goods and services for which there is no need.
- There is an imposition on customers of the system of values used to assess the benefits of products.
- Viewing advertisements, as a rule, is not desirable or voluntary.
- In fact, agitation is a tool for hidden violence against the will.
- Sometimes the effectiveness of advertising is achieved through the active exploitation of human instincts.
- It has a negative effect on the subconscious and the human consciousness: a global change in behavior occurs under the influence of propaganda.
- In the book "Manipulation of Consciousness" publicist Sergey Kara-Murza views current advertising as an attempt to covertly control society.
Let's evaluate PR from an economic position:
- Advertising increases costs, increasing the consumer price of products.
- Monopolizes the market: small manufacturers are not able to advertise their products in the way that large corporations do.
- Advertising increases the demand for goods, followed by rising prices.
- The continuous increase in advertising leads to a decrease in the use of the method of personal sales.
What is social advertising? This is a type of non-commercial agitation necessary to change the behavior of society and draw attention to the tasks of society. It is a type of social product and is fundamentally different from political and government advertising.
By the way, in the USA and Europe, the term PSA - the public service announcement is usually used to refer to it.
Very often, social advertising is ordered by government agencies or non-profit organizations. Its distributors and special agencies usually manufacture and place their products completely free of charge or at reduced prices.
The best-known examples of this type of campaigning are campaigns to comply with the rules of the road, fight against drugs, promote healthy lifestyles, are related to environmental protection, and so on.
Criticism of the legal definition of advertising
It should be noted that the definition of advertising has been criticized by many in connection with the identification of promotion solely as “information”. Some experts believe that it does not express the specifics of PR and is very limited.
In practice, the definition of advertising as “information” gives rise to a powerful direction of social criticism, arising primarily from the differences in approaches to the concept of “information” and the related problems in identifying specific alerts as advertising messages.
Analyzing the wording of the legislative definition of advertising, you can see the following:
- The legislation gives an extensive interpretation of the promotion, in accordance with which it is considered immense information, placed on any kind of media and in any expression. In fact, this is both property and information objects equipped with an advertising function.
- Legislative identification uses the term “information” in the format of a single sentence without indicating its appearance, that is, the word “any” and the word “undefined” are used in relation to the addressee of the prospectus. This nuance shows that arbitrary interpretation of the legal language is possible.
- Legislative definition makes it clear that advertising is addressed to anyone. That is why inaccuracies appear in relation to such forms of agitation as targeted messages, where the circle of persons is always defined.
The specified facts of ambiguity of legislative identification lead to misunderstanding by market participants of the rules of legal PR: every advertising manager will confirm this nuance. The vague definition of the subject for which legislation has been introduced usually provokes difficulties and mistakes in qualifying violations in the market. This, in turn, can lead to a strengthening of administrative methods of influence, which will adversely affect the development of civil society institutions.
Festivals and contests
The IAA Responsibility Awards are a worldwide social advertising festival. It was created in 2008 by the International Advertising Association.
In 2006, the National Social Information Council was founded by the People’s Contest of Social Propaganda “New Russian Space”. This is the most important event in the development of Russian social advertising. It is noteworthy that the purpose of the competition founders call the education of morality, the creation of a positive way of thinking for children, professional and youth audiences.
And in Ukraine, since 2000, a contest of social PR “New Names in Advertising” is organized every year. In 2007, the “Social Advertising Exchange” was created in this country.
So, we learned what advertising is. The definition, the concept of this creation of human hands will still long to excite the consciousness of readers! And perhaps one of them wants to invent something unusual, new in this area.