Everyone sooner or later wants to study the advertising industry. In this article, we will examine in detail all that is related to the concept of "advertising". Definition, the types of this phenomenon will also be considered carefully. First of all, of course, you need to remember that advertising is part of marketing communications. It defines the boundaries in which the popularized sponsor's distribution of non-personalized information is produced in order to draw attention to the advertised subject, maintain or generate interest in it.
In all probability, advertising in human society appeared simultaneously with trade. Its existence in ancient times is confirmed by the Egyptian papyrus, on which is inscribed an announcement about the forthcoming sale of a slave. Previously, the placement of advertising took place in written and verbal advertisements praising a particular product or service. The distribution of oral advertising involved various kinds of barkers, and written ones - papyrus scrolls, waxed plates, inscriptions on roadside stones and on buildings.
Perhaps the production of advertising would never have acquired such enormous popularity if Adam's descendants had not discovered the era of mass communications once. The first steps in this area have made printing.
The next important event is the invention and subsequent popularization by the middle of the nineteenth century throughout the Earth of the art of photography. The photos served as irrefutable proof of the advantages of the praised product. There was a profession "advertising manager". But in the global advertising business the most grandiose events occurred yet in the twentieth century. It was the twentieth century called "the century of PR": in fact at that time there were serious changes in the development of advertising technologies.
By the way, it was only in the twentieth century that certain types of advertising received a colossal spread. And only because the growth in world industrial production has increased many-fold. And the means of creating and distributing advertisements were improved and updated. Thus, multi-color printing, satellite communication, analogue, and then digital radio and television broadcasting, computers, the Internet appeared.
Not a step behind the pace of scientific and technological evolution, the effectiveness of the "engine of trade" increases: it is becoming more and more professionally organized and quality.
Today agitation practice has transformed into an exceptional social institution, providing the need for advertising support. The industrial base of this institute consists of a set of activities that are called the "advertising industry".
This definition was formed in the modern economy during the period of acquisition of a mass character by the advertising movement. The unmistakable conduct of agitation, the systemic interconnection of the subjects of the advertising market with participants in diverse economic sectors, the existence of enterprises that manufacture branding and provide advertising services, allows us to think that PR has acquired features of the industry.
In order for the definition of advertising to be more understandable, we will study its most important parameters. William Wells singled out the seven main functions of the "engine of commerce":
- Advertising should shape the brand image.
- It creates awareness of brands and products.
- Informs about the brand or product.
- Convincing customers.
- Advertising to accomplish actions creates incentives.
- Provides a reminder.
- Strengthens the previous experience of acquisitions.
Types of advertising
Advertising is divided into a huge number of species. Defining the goals of advertising is quite scrupulous occupation, so now we will get acquainted with those types of advertising that are classified according to their intended purpose:
- Commercial (economic) advertising. The purpose of this type of PR becomes a consumer who is a potential buyer: if he is offered a product, in return from him you can get income.
- Social advertising, as a rule, does not fit into the scope of the tasks of the economy. It is used by charitable or socially useful organizations to popularize a healthy lifestyle among the population, support low-income families, struggle to preserve life on earth, popularize funds and public organizations that help people, in particular toddlers.
- Political advertising (including pre-election). Today it is a means of fighting for the votes of voters, and it is she who helps most politicians and parties to win a place in power.
The definition of advertising pursuing specific goals is presented in the following description:
- Counter-advertising is a refutation of dishonest PR. In Russia, for dishonorable declarations by the former federal law on advertising in 1995, an article was provided as punishment.
- Anti-advertising is called information, designed not to increase, but to reduce interest or to compromise enterprises, trademarks, products.
- Specs spots (translation into Russian is not available) - "promotional" videos made by private persons, perceived by the viewer as official advertising.
Now consider the main types of advertising, which is classified by place and manner of placement. Marketing communications are divided into ATL- and BTL-segments. What is ATL advertising? It includes the following traditional types of advertising: printing, advertising in the media, UN (external and internal). The other types are attributed to BTL communications.
We will study advertising in the media. The most popular and generally accepted type in this field is agitation in the mass media:
- Television (commercial breaks, video clips in advertising blocks, announcements (for example, in teletext), a message in the running line, sponsorship, virtual agitation).
- Printed. This kind is used in the press, distributed with the help of print, stickers, leaflets, business cards.
- Radio. This kind of videos, sometimes "jeans", advertised on the rights of "advertising".
- Internet advertising. In this case, advertising is placed on the Internet: banners, text blocks, blogs, contextual advertising, pixel, selling texts, "tag cloud" and so on.
And what is Outdoor advertising? This is outdoor advertising, which is usually placed on special stationary or temporary structures that are located in the open space, on the external surfaces of structures, buildings, on street equipment elements, at gas stations, over roads, highways, sidewalks.
Outdoor advertising is divided into street and light traffic on transport. In general, there is a huge number of options for placing street ads: the most popular of them are billboards and citylights. Transport advertising is placed on buses, trolleybuses, trams, on private cars, in the subway. It can be both internal and external.
Indoor advertising is usually called internal. This category includes ads that are placed inside the premises. They can be seen at trade outlets, train stations and airports, in business centers, cinemas, entertainment and sports, lifts, entrances, medical and educational institutions and so on.
Consider BTL advertising. The effectiveness of advertising of this kind is quite high. It is used, as a rule, in the following cases:
- Like postal direct mail.
- In the process of reference service.
- In the form of product placement - the introduction of advertising products or services in the story line of films or other entertainment product.
- Fan agitation.
- Viral advertising is often called "word of mouth". It is information transmitted from person to person.
- Gross-promotion is a cross-selling PR of two or more products or services based on mutual benefits.
- It is sometimes placed in payment terminals as video clips.
By the way, many types of advertising in marketing would look damaging if they did not have an exhortative variety that formed electoral demand.
Role in the current society
What role does advertising play in the modern world? Oh, she has a lot of missions! Here they are:
- Economic (income generation).
- Social (achievement of goals useful to society).
- Ideological. It is a factor that influences the formation and formation of a person's worldview.
- Psychological. As a rule, it affects the dreams and wishes of the buyer, without affecting his mind.
- Educational. Looking through ads or studying the introduction of new technologies, described in the video, a person can extract information for himself from all walks of life.
- Aesthetic, or cultural advertising. In many posters, the sounds, colors, which influence a person in such a way that he will necessarily pay more attention to them, or he will have a desire to respond to a proposal, are quite qualitatively selected.
Very often in advertising, there are various political and financial interests. The consumer is interested in reducing its number and reducing obsession. The producer, on the contrary, constantly increases both the amount of advertising and audience coverage. Of course, compromise solutions are used here, for example, on real estate objects, the ads are placed on mutually beneficial terms between the partnerships of homeowners and the owners of the premises.
It is noteworthy that the interests of society require to protect consumers from dishonest and false advertising. These same interests stimulate sales, the basic means of which is PR. In general, they are contradictory and require adjustment. The law on advertising in any country is a kind of compromise between the above-mentioned interests.
Consider legislative restrictions. Many types of advertising in marketing are limited by volume (share), place, method and time of distribution. On the obviously unethical, false, inferior and inappropriate information, as a rule, a ban is introduced. Very often, the activities of distributors and manufacturers of advertising are licensed.
The Federal Law "On Advertising" in Russia regulates commercial and social propaganda. Election campaigning is controlled by the law on elections, and political - by Federal laws "On public organizations" and "On political parties". For violations in this area can bring to administrative responsibility.
It should be noted that in many countries it is impossible to advertise specific products if they do not have an inscription reminiscent of the harm that these products cause to human health. This applies to alcoholic beverages and tobacco products.
In many countries, the production of advertising of this kind was banned. It is known, by the way, that it is too difficult to define hidden agitation, as well as the fact that it is a product-placement. Unlike other hidden PR, he is usually allowed.
Positive and negative arguments
It should be noted that determining the effectiveness of advertising is quite a difficult task: usually the assessment of the quality of the material is part of the process of analyzing communicative effectiveness. Consider just the positive side of the advertising industry:
- PR is part of the integrated marketing communications, so it raises the efficiency of the enterprise.
- Promotes mass consumption, which is necessary for in-line production. Acts as an obligatory factor, involved in the process of price reduction.
- If you use a separation strategy, a complex of marketing communications, including advertising, allows you to get feedback from the focus on a certain sales sector, making profitability and business continuity.
- Being part of marketing integrated communications, agitation develops modern technologies, increases the demand for advertised products in the economy, thereby increasing business activity, living standards and economic growth.
- Promotes an increase in the overall cultural level of the population.
- PR struggles with chauvinism, pushes to get acquainted with the values of other cultures, contributes to globalization.
- The advertising effect helps to move from material consumption to spiritual consumption.
But if advertising is evaluated from a legal and ethical point of view, then we will see the following negative picture:
- All kinds of advertising offer buyers goods and services, in which there is no need.
- There is an imposition on the customers of the value system used to assess the utility of products.
- Viewing ads, as a rule, is not welcome or voluntary.
- In fact, agitation is an instrument of covert violence against the will.
- Sometimes the effectiveness of advertising is achieved through the active exploitation of human instincts.
- Negatively affects the subconscious and the consciousness of a person: there is a global change in behavior under the influence of propaganda.
- In the book "Manipulation by Consciousness" publicist Sergei Kara-Murza views current advertising as an attempt to covert management of society.
Let's evaluate the PR from the economic position:
- Advertising increases costs, increasing the consumer price of products.
- Monopolizes the market: small manufacturers are not in a position to advertise their products the way large corporations do.
- Advertising increases the demand for goods, after which prices are also rising.
- Continuous increase in advertising leads to a decrease in the use of the method of personal sales.
What is social advertising? This is the kind of noncommercial agitation necessary to change the patterns of behavior of society and to attract attention to the problems of society. It is a kind of social product and is radically different from political and state advertising.
By the way, in the USA and Europe, the term PSA - public service announcement is usually used to refer to here.
Very often, social advertising is ordered by government agencies or non-profit organizations. Its distributors and special agencies usually manufacture and place their products for free or at reduced prices.
The most well-known examples of this type of agitation are campaigns on observance of traffic rules, fighting drugs, promoting healthy lifestyles related to environmental protection, and so on.
Criticism of legislative definition of advertising
It should be noted that the definition of advertising is criticized by many in connection with the identification of the promotion solely as "information". Some experts believe that it does not express the specifics of public relations and is very limited.
In practice, the definition of advertising as "information" generates a powerful direction of social criticism, arising primarily because of differences in approaches to the concept of "information" and related problems in identifying specific alerts as advertising messages.
Analyzing the formulation of the legislative definition of advertising, you can see the following:
- Legislation gives an extensive interpretation of the promotion, according to which it is considered immense information, placed on any media and in any expression. In fact, this is both property and information objects, equipped with an advertising function.
- Legislative identification uses the term "information" in the format of one sentence without specifying its form, that is, the word "any" and the word "indefinite" are applied to the addressee of the prospectus. This nuance shows that an arbitrary interpretation of the legislative formulation is possible.
- Legislative definition makes it clear that advertising is addressed to anyone whatsoever. That is why there are inaccuracies regarding such forms of agitation as address messages, where the circle of persons is always determined.
These facts of uncertainty of legislative identification lead to a misunderstanding by market participants of the rules of legal PR: every advertising manager will confirm this nuance. An unclear definition of the subject matter in respect of which legislative norms have been introduced usually provokes difficulties and blunders in the qualification of violations in the market. This, in turn, can lead to strengthening of administrative methods of influence, which will negatively affect the development of civil society institutions.
Festivals and competitions
The IAA Responsibility Awards is a worldwide festival of social advertising. It was created in 2008 by the Advertising International Association.
In 2006, the IPO "National Council of Social Information" established the National Competition of Social Propaganda "New Russian Space". This is the most important event in the development of Russian social advertising. It is noteworthy that the founders call the goal of the competition the education of morality, the creation of a positive way of thinking for children, professional and youth audiences.
And in Ukraine, since 2000, every year there has been organized a contest of social PR "New names in advertising". In 2007, the "Social Advertising Exchange" was established in this country.
So, we learned what advertising is. Definition, the concept of this creation of the hands of human beings will continue to arouse the readers' mind for a long time! And maybe some of them will want to invent something unusual, new in this area.