The diversity of the surrounding world does not cease to amaze humanity. Researchers are opening up new horizons for us, based on the results of the previous generation. In this sense, chemistry is a science that can not be fully studied, modern technological solutions find the most optimal and necessary fields of application for elements already known by mankind. The XIX century became a time of discovery, XXI - a period of more effective use. For example, barium oxide is a substance that has been studied multilaterally, but who knows what new technologies will be associated with it in the future.
Alkaline earth metal, which is part of the earth's crust have attracted the attention of chemists in the eighteenth century. The first mention about this element connected with his oxygen compound – barium oxide. It has a very high for their species density, so called "heavy", which later became the name of the item. Metal is chemically active, so to get it in its pure form it requires a number of reactions in the presence of a catalyst. The most common natural mineral containing barium is sulfate BaSO4 (heavy spar of barite) and BaCO3 (Witherite). It is with these compounds that the process of obtaining a substance such as barium oxide is associated. In the future it is used for the isolation of metal in its pure form and has its own directions of application.
The most important compounds
Like all typical metals, barium chemically reacts with oxygen, while the resulting material depend on the process conditions and catalyst. For example, a simple reaction of oxide with water makes it possible to form Ba(OH)2 – barium hydroxide. Barium oxide is obtained from nitrate. Typical compounds with all halogens are: BaF2. BaCI2. BaI2. BaS, BaBr2. The formation of nitrates, sulphides, sulfates occurs due to the interaction of minerals with the corresponding acid solutions. Today, all the most important compounds of barium find their application. But it is impossible to exclude new discoveries in the sphere of the use of this substance, as the technology of devices grows, its significance will only increase both at the industrial and household levels.
The binary communication of the chemical element oxygen is the most common form of matter in nature. The oxides form a metal and a nonmetal. It is the characteristic element in the interaction with oxygen has become the basis of the periodic system D. I. For the steel industry the most appropriate method of allocation of substance is received from the oxide. Pre-natural metal ore (metal salts) are subjected to various chemical influences, aimed at obtaining the oxide. Typically, this process is accompanied by heating to the required temperature. No exception is barium oxide. The formula of the resulting substance has the form: BaO. Oxides can be obtained in other ways. For example, from hydroxides, salts and the oxides of higher oxidation States.
First of all, it should be noted that all compounds of this metal are toxic (except for sulphate), therefore it is necessary to observe elementary safety rules at work. This applies to many chemical elements. Another name - barite anhydrous - should not be confused with sulfate, which is a natural mineral. Under normal (standard) conditions, white crystals or powder, sometimes colorless with a typical cubic lattice, are a compound of a metal with oxygen and are called barium oxide. The formula of the substance is BaO. The technical modification of the oxide can have a gray color, which is given to it by coal, not completely removed from the composition.
There are several ways of selection of such substances as barium oxide. They are used in accordance with the intended purpose and amount of the substance. Laboratory and industrial conditions are suitable all methods, so as to obtain the barium oxide is chosen by the manufacturer. Methods used:
- Calcination of pre-precipitated barium nitrate, which occurs with the release of pure oxygen. 2Ba (NO3 )2 = 2BaO + 4NO2 + O2 .
- Reaction of interaction with oxygen of metallic barium. 2Ba + O2 = 2BaO. The catalyst is a temperature of 500-600 ° C, in this case, the production of peroxide is not excluded. 2Ba + O2 = 2BaO2. Upon further heating to 700 0 C, the substance decomposes into free oxygen and oxide of barium.
- For the process of decomposition of barium carbonate to the oxide and carbon dioxide requires high temperature. BaCO3 = BaO + CO2. To obtain a cleaner final substance, it is necessary to remove excess carbon dioxide.
Most of the binary metal compounds with oxygen exhibit basic properties. The equation of barium oxide (formula BaO) shows that this substance is just such oxides. This compound is a salt-forming compound. Typical chemical interactions occur with the following classes of substances:
- Interaction with water occurs quite rapidly, with the release of heat and the formation of an alkaline solution. BaO + H2 O = Ba(OH)2 .
- With oxygen the oxide interacts in the presence of catalyst (high temperature 600-500 0), the result is a peroxide, decompose further into its component parts to isolate the pure metal or oxide. It is necessary to increase the heat up to 700 0 C. 2Ba O2 = 2BaO2 .
- As a typical basic barium oxide reacts with acids, a chemical reaction produces water and the corresponding salt. BaO + H2 SO4 = H2O BaSO4 or BaO + 2HCI = H2 O BaCI2.
- Acidic oxides react with BaO, the result of the interaction are of salt. BaO CO2 = BaCO3 or BaO + SO3 = BaSO24 .
- To release pure barium, the oxide is calcined with metals that take the released oxygen. As such, silicon, aluminum, zinc or magnesium are used.
Barium and its compounds give a very powerful brightness of color when coating the surface of other substances. Therefore, manganese and barium oxides serve as units for measuring the brightness coefficient. Used to get green in pyrotechnics, with decorative finishing in the composition of glazes and enamels. The relatively low cost of processing and receiving, the high level of heat generation makes it possible to use oxide as a catalyst in chemical reactions. In particular, this substance is used for the isolation of pure metal (Ba), the production of hydroxide and peroxide. The production of ceramics used at the lowest temperatures (liquid nitrogen) occurs with the participation of barium oxide. The synthesis process includes rare-earth metals and copper oxide. The range of application of the substance in instrument-making is quite broad. Barium oxide is used to cover oscillographic and television tubes, various types of cathodes, electronic products. Serves as an active mass for powerful accumulators of copper-oxide type. Barium oxide is one of the main elements in the composition of glass, which has a rather specific direction of use, is used to cover the surface of rods made of uranium. To create optical glasses this substance is also irreplaceable.