The word "dialectic" has ancient Greek roots. In translation, the term means "the art of reasoning, arguing." The general scientific dialectical method acts as one of the central elements in the Indian and European philosophical traditions. Let's explore it in more detail.
Development of dialectical method
About 2.5 thousand years ago in ancient Greece, China and India began to appear the first philosophical trends. The early directions were naively dialectical and spontaneous-materialistic in nature. The formation of Eastern wisdom has gone through several stages. At first it relied on the pairing of categories, then there was a search for common grounds for ripe ideas and concepts, symbols and images, different from each other to the direct opposite. This path took place in both esoteric and well-known philosophical schools and trends. For the European, the exotic form of oriental thinkers is somewhat unusual. Nevertheless, it serves for them as an expression of the struggle and unity of opposites in the content of conceivable definitions. The dialectical method set up the theoretical thinking of Indians, Persians, Chinese, Arabs, Egyptians and other thinkers on the understanding of meaningful classification, the search for a rational justification for the mutual definability of categories. In the center was the opposite of the vanity in the world of transient things, the wise contemplation of the eternal meaning of one being. It is possible to comprehend this by achieving a sense-sensual-bodily harmony with the world and oneself, overcoming the opposite moments of actions and experiences. Dialectical method became known through the works of Plato. He described the forms of conversations in which two or more participants could hold different opinions, but sought to find the truth by sharing their findings. Beginning with Hegel, the dialectical scientific method is opposed to metaphysics. In it, phenomena and things are independent of each other and unchanged.
Definitions of thinkers
In the history of philosophy, the dialectical method was interpreted in various ways.
- In particular, Heraclitus called him the doctrine of eternal variability and the emergence of being.
- Socrates interpreted it as the art of dialogue and understood under it the comprehension of truth by posing various guiding questions and successive answers to them.
- According to Plato, the dialectical method involves the dismemberment and binding of concepts to comprehend the ideal (supersensory) essence of things.
- Bruno, Cusan considered this direction a doctrine of combining opposites.
- According to Kant, this is the way through which the illusions created by the human mind are destroyed, which in the quest for absolute and whole knowledge inevitably gets entangled in contradictions.
- Aristotle believed that the dialectical method involves the consideration of the research provisions in their broad sense.
- The theory of Marxism-Leninism accepted it as the basis of knowledge of reality and its revolutionary transformations.
- Hegel called this direction a universal method of studying contradictions, acting as internal driving forces for the development of history, spirit and being.
In the 20th century, the dialectical method of analysis became the subject of a theoretical and historical study of Nikolai Hartman. Such thinkers of modernity as Brom and Sev have addressed to this trend. They considered dialectics exclusively in relation to human activity. They did not associate it with nature and all other phenomena and things that exist outside of human behavior. After World War II, some thinkers widely used the dialectical method in their works. In particular, among such figures are Alexander Zinoviev, Richard Levontan, Patrick Tort and others. They not only applied this method, but also considered it as a subject of study. In the 21st century there were works by Charbonne, Olman, Sanchez-Palencia. In them, the method, combined with the dialectical materialism of Engels and Marx, is introduced into science.
Using the dialectical method, a person can make understandable and accessible contradictions, paradoxical and unusual situations that can occur in experiments and observations of researchers. The content of the method changes with progress. This is due to the fact that in a certain sense the essence of dialectics can be considered a science based on the principles of abstraction. The basic provisions of this direction were formulated by Engels. In Brom's interpretation, these principles look like this:
- Change and movement.
- Interdependence or interaction.
- Contradiction is the power of creation.
- Movement from quantity to quality.
- Negation of negation (development in a spiral).
Georges Politzer combined the third and fifth principles, which did not cause any special inconvenience, since their content is not yet defined.
Some confirmation of materialistic dialectics can be found in biology. The physico-chemical deterministic formation of living organisms and a certain content of information are subject to endless changes in the course of evolution and metabolism. Dialectics allows solving scientific contradictions in all kinds of disciplines, including in applied mathematics. But first of all, as Sanchez-Palencia noted, it is applicable in psychology and sociology. In his opinion, dialectics, in fact, can not be called a logic with its exact laws - it acts more like a common framework, within the framework of which evolutionary phenomena are inscribed. Belostotsky believed that this direction goes through all knowledge, allowing you to bring out the dyad "subject-object" from the most fundamental concepts, from non-being and being.
Specificity of use
Dialectical methods are based on the productive activity of the human brain. They differ:
- Systematic use.
- Transcendental possibilities determined by appropriate (dialectical) technologies.
The methods of cognition within the discipline are transformed into methods of comprehension. They act as the highest stage, possess transcendental possibilities. The methods of cognition are applied in accordance with the foundations and aspects of dialectical research. At the present stage of the formation of philosophy they form a complex, which is conditioned by the operational criterion of the reproduction of the doctrine according to Hegel.