The general system of taxation can be applied by various economic entities. In addition to this form of activity, there is still a simplified one, but not all payers can apply it.
What tax system to choose
When registering a payer - a legal entity, if they were not given a special application concerning the transition to any other taxation system, a common system is applied.
Foreign enterprises that carry out economic activities on Russian territory can use only a common system in taxation.
Structure of the common system
The taxation system under consideration consists of local, regional and federal taxes.So, local taxes are introduced by appropriate decisions of local authorities. Federal - are applied throughout the territory of the Russian Federation, regional - only where the relevant legislative body has adopted such a law on their application.
The general system of taxation assumes an independent determination by the payer with the subsequent payment of taxes to the budget, which will be discussed in more detail below.
The natural desire of any enterprise is the desire to pay the least possible amount of taxes. This goal can be achieved only with proper tax planning, the principles of which are quite simple:
- use of acceptable legal ways to reduce the amount of taxes;
- Payment to the budgets of the minimum amount of taxes (including all available overpayments) on the last day of the period established by the relevant legislation.
Value added tax
VAT at which the object of taxation is those transactions that are related to the sale of goods, as well as the performance of various construction works for personal use and the importation of goods into the territory of the Russian Federation, is calculated at several rates: 0%, 10% and 18%. Information on when, and in what percentage terms this tax is applied, can be found in any thematic literature.
Corporate income tax
As an object, profit is taken, which was received by the payer as a result of carrying out its activities. The rate of this tax is 20%, the quarter, half-year, etc. are taken as the reporting period. A special feature of this fee is the monthly payment of advances calculated on the basis of the actual profit of the previous year.
There are some exceptions. Thus, enterprises that use the simplified taxation system are exempted from paying this tax, as well as business entities classified as small businesses.
Also for the first two years small businesses that process and produce food, agricultural products, building materials, as well as consumer goods and medical equipment are exempt from this tax. Over the next two years, enterprises of this type are reducing the tax rate. However, this exemption can be used if the following condition is met: the revenue from these activities is at least 70% and 90% of the company's total revenue.
The third and fourth year of its operation, enterprises pay a tax of 25 and 50% of the approved income tax rate. However, in this case, the previous condition remains the same (the revenue from these activities should be from 90% of the total revenue for the enterprise).
Corporate property tax
The general taxation system can not exist without a property tax. In this case, the object of calculating this payment is the availability of a different type of property, which is on the balance sheet as a fixed asset. The tax base is the average annual value of such property.The rate of this payment is approved by the Tax Code of the Russian Federation - 2.2%. The tax period is a calendar year, and the reporting period is a quarter, six months and nine months.
Enterprises that carry out activities that use this type of accounting, such as a general taxation system, report in the following set: balance sheet, tax calculation for advance payments, and a tax return.
If the payers do not carry out economic activities, they are still submitted to the territorial bodies of the tax service, but only in a simplified form.
In addition to these taxes, there are also payments to extra-budgetary funds, such as the social insurance fund, the pension fund, as well as contributions to wages.
Principle of accounting
The general system of taxation provides for the maintenance of tax and accounting in full. This, first, from the management of the enterprise will require the availability of special knowledge and practice. The second important condition for the application of this system is the presence in the state of an accountant, who will be responsible for maintaining such reporting in accordance with established norms of tax legislation.
This system of taxation is used, in large part, by large enterprises, which are characterized by the existence of a stable income. It is simpler for new business entities to use the simplified system at the initial stage to develop their activities, since it does not require accounting. With it, you can only reflect income and expenses in the corresponding Accounting Book.