Fall to the bottom companies easily as two bytes to send. It does not need to have special knowledge or skills. That's just to be human, to think not only about everyday things, but to speak on philosophical topics – it is not everyone can. After all, the man who dwells at the bottom, there's only three ways out: to slip into the abyss, to become a philosopher or to rise from the ashes.
The legacy of Maxim Gorky
Aleksey Maksimovich Peshkov had cherished the dream that the world will inhabit the "new people". People who are impeccable in terms of intellectual and physical development, manners and principles. These new people have the courage and thirst for freedom, they transcend any obstacles, they can achieve all you want. And may their goals are beyond possible, it is possible for them.
Filled with these thoughts, like a whirlwind, rushes Maxim Gorky in literature of the 19th century. He decided that if and to dream the impossible, why not share your ideas with others, suddenly among them there are those people, whom he wanted to see around. Aleksey Maximovich turns into Maxim Gorky and in the past 44 years, takes by storm the domestic literature, releasing into the world with new works.
During this time he managed to write 5 novels, 10 novellas, 18 short stories and essays, 16 plays and produced 3 cycles articles. Writer, novelist and playwright was 5 times nominated for the Nobel prize in literature. Was widely considered one of the most famous Russian thinkers and writers. He left behind a rich legacy and one of the jewels of his collection is the piece At the bottom.
"At the bottom"
First performance on motives of the works were delivered on 18 December 1902 at the Moscow art theatre. In Soviet times, the production delighted the audience 9 times. The last time she was seen in 1956. But this does not detract from its success. Not once the play had been acted abroad in such cities as Berlin, Krakow, Helsinki, Paris, Tokyo, new York, London, Tunisia. 1996-present produced over 20 productions in different countries of the world. The play was filmed 10 times not only domestic films, but also in Hungary, Japan and France.
What attracts this piece the community: the problem of moral choice
M. Gorky, "At the bottom": a summary
The events of a work occur in a place like a doss house. Rooming house is the property of M. I. Kostyleva. Here live people who long ago fell to the bottom of society. Some of them still believe that you can get out of this hell and change your life for the better, and someone has already given up and sunk to the farthest channels of the "bottom".
Between the residents of the rooming house complex relationship. They have different lives, different views on life, so it is difficult to find a common language, from-for what constantly there are quarrels. The wife of the owner of the restaurant, Vasilisa, Vaska likes of Ash, who earns his living by stealing. She persuades the thief to kill her husband so they were free and no one bothered them. Only Vaska doesn't reciprocate the feelings Vasilisa, as has long been in love with her younger sister Natalia. Vasilisa notices this, and mercilessly beats Natalya, which she gets to the hospital. After discharge, she was not returned to the shelter.
What more does the story work that was created by M. Gorky ("bottom")? Brief contents even in the second part of tragic. Among the guests there is a new man Luke, who inspires all that life will improve. But when Kostylevo and Vaska there is a conflict, in which Vaska accidentally kills Kostyleva, and the thief is arrested, Luke miraculously disappears. The actor, who has become attached to Luke and believed him, distressed by his disappearance and hung in the yard. Strikes the reader is the final phrase of the work, pronounced Satiny after he learned of the death of the Actor: "what a fool, only song messed up".
The bottom people in Gorky's play "At the bottom" are the most common. They were in a difficult life situation. The main characters of the work are:
- Mikhail Kostylev – charge of the shelter.
- Vasilisa – wife Kostyleva, loves the thief of Ash.
- Natalia - Vasilisa's sister, suffers beatings of the elder sister and after leaving the hospital disappears.
- Luke is a wanderer who suddenly appears and disappears, skillfully console all with lies.
- Vaska Ash is a thief who wants to change his destiny.
- Tick – ordinary hard worker who wants to return to a past life.
- Baron – an impoverished aristocrat, is confident that the best moments of his life in the past.
- Satin is a sharper, I'm sure that the main thing for a person is spiritual freedom
- The actor – once really performed on the big stage, now a drunkard, who has not invented anything the best how to commit suicide.
Analysis of the play
Why I wrote Gorky "the lower depths"? The analysis of this work shows that among the moral dirt of society's outcasts has a small glowing ember, which unobtrusively hisses: "Man is a proud man – it's good!" Most clearly seen when the front of the hotel stands a small problem.
Truth or lie?
The problem of moral choice in the play Gorky's "the lower depths" is very serious. What should people believe? The sweet lie or the bitter truth, which flavored the play Bitter "At the bottom"? The analysis shows that the master of sweet the lies in the work stands the wanderer Bow, it is sure that people need to say what they want to hear. He is encouraging all rooming house residents. Gives them faith that there is a chance to change your life, if you do this or like that. But when he suddenly disappears, everyone becomes uncomfortable. The hotel felt abandoned, and the Actor, who believed the words of Luke more than anyone else, commits suicide.
However in Gorky's play "na dne" is personified by her hero – Satiny. This man is not the best representative of the human race – he is dishonest, likes to drink, involved in fights, are pessimistic about the future. But it has a little more knowledge and understanding of what is happening. From him comes the simple truth: "we Should be proud that you are a man". Satin is not a charismatic person who can lead the crowd, he is not a revolutionary, not a psychologist and not a politician – he just pointed out the obvious, which is lit in the eyes of each, not yet despairing utterly of inhabitant, a special spark. And she will not go out when the Satin will disappear, as happened with the beautiful lie Luke.
The image of the bottom in the play "At the bottom"
What else can you say about this creation of the classic of Russian literature? Why is it so clinging even to our contemporaries? Maybe because the topic raised by Alexei Maksimovich is relevant at all times?
The play, which was written by M. Gorky ("bottom") can rightly be called a socio-philosophical one. Here social life and philosophical reflections do not overlap, but complement each other, making the piece a full, alive and real work. Image of bottom in the play "the lower depths" is a harsh reality of the lower strata of society. There are no invented facts, but only real life is what it is. The fate of the rejected, those who have no more chances to climb. For the first time in world drama, was shown the gloomy fate of the "former people". In the sticky darkness of the musty basement gathered maimed, mutilated by fate the people. Every day they are desperately fighting for their existence. Someone strong enough that to survive, and someone is given into the arms of death. The only ray of hope in this hopeless darkness brought Luke, who has encouraged the people, and then disappeared. Hard in this situation not to give up, but the words Satin give people faith in the future and in their own human dignity. Image of bottom in the play "the lower depths" is a torture chamber, where the executioner acts as His Majesty disappointed. It mercilessly beats have long been covered by mud people.
The image of the bottom in the play "At the bottom" is something dark and hopeless, but with the person inside. And where there is a person, there will always be little hope, because a person is fine.
The truth is always recognizable
The public ambiguously reacted to the play, which was written by M. Gorky ("bottom"). People have always been alien to the sufferings of the lowest stratum of society. But the truth of his story, the characters and the fates of his characters have become recognizable not only in the Soviet Union, but throughout the world – from America to Japan.