Modern society needs a completely new type of people. In the age of powerful development of technologies of various directions, people simply must possess such qualities as flexibility of thinking, the ability to quickly learn new knowledge, communication, the ability to plan, make decisions and much more. How to achieve the tasks set by time? It is necessary to reconsider the approach to the process of education of the younger generation. In particular, gradually introduce educational technologies into the pedagogical process.
Why innovative pedagogical technologies?
Unfortunately, traditional education can not ensure the development of the future generation in accordance with the new requirements of society. The system of education in our country needs drastic changes. Innovative educational technologies will help to cope with a whole range of pedagogical problems.
The traditional system of education implies the passive absorption of already existing knowledge. The only source of information is the teacher. The teacher is considered the undisputed leader of the pedagogical process during the lesson. Thus, it is quite difficult to develop the ability of children to think independently.
Modern requirements for the future generation imply a fundamentally opposite approach to the student. To date, most school-age children have access to the Internet as a means of finding and receiving any information. Therefore, new educational technologies change the role of the teacher in the process of knowledge transfer. The teacher should only stealthily guide and help the students "gain" knowledge independently, setting certain conditions, tasks and search criteria.
That is why educational technologies were introduced in the GEF (Federal State Educational Standard). They are able to fulfill the social order set by society.
What is pedagogical technology?
In order to understand pedagogical innovations, it is necessary to understand the essence of the term "educational technologies". This concept denotes a comprehensively directed set of pedagogical methods, methods and methods of conducting educational activities by the teacher in order to achieve the set goals.
Pedagogical technologies of GEF
With the goal of global change of the whole system, educational technologies for GEF were introduced. The essence of the pedagogical innovations indicated in the document consists not so much in the process of mastering knowledge as in the evaluation of the result obtained. They are aimed at developing independent thinking and obtaining a visual result of mental activity. The following pedagogical technologies are singled out, which are directly introduced into the educational process of both pre-school and school educational institutions:
- problem training;
- developing training;
- method of projects;
- play as a way of knowing;
- research activity;
- creative activity in the team;
- application of information technologies;
- integration training;
- personal-oriented learning;
- system of modular education.
The founder of developmental learning is the psychologist LS Vygotsky. Schools that practice the use of modern educational technologies of the developing direction, appeared in the 50's. Their founders were LV Zankov and DB El'konin. The principle of developmental learning is to choose the material for the lesson, to focus on the so-called zone of proximal development. Vygotsky divided the knowledge of children into 3 levels:
- Information that children know.
- Information that is not known.
- The zone of the nearest development is an intermediate section between the first and second levels. At this stage, students have enough knowledge to get new ones. In such a situation, the child must overcome the set difficulties, relying on the available skills to independently learn the unknown. Thus, developing educational technologies in the DOW make the child an active subject of pedagogical activity: the student realizes the need for knowledge and obtains a visual result of his activity.
The arising problem situation induces a person to think process to find a solution to the task. Based on this fact, a pedagogical innovation was developed, such as problem training. The use of educational technologies of this type implies a problematic situation, a question. The pupil, trying to answer the task, uses various thought processes, is engaged in independent information retrieval, selects unusual solutions, uses research activities and much more. Thus, problem education includes a whole range of different methods that are used to solve the task.
As mentioned above, the task of modern education is not just to give knowledge to students, but to teach children to apply this knowledge in practice, to be able to connect theoretical materials with problem life situations. Modern educational technologies primarily seek to realize precisely such pedagogical goals.
The project method is an orderly system that involves several stages of work on a specific issue. The essence of technology is to create a ready-made visual product - this is a mandatory rule of this method. A student participates in the development of an action plan, its implementation and monitoring of implementation. But most importantly, the child sees a concrete result of their activities, confirming the correctness of the chosen solution and the implementation of the idea in practice. Educational technologies of this type help students to trace the connection between theoretical knowledge and practical activities. As a result of this comes the realization of the need for learning for life in society.
Stages of the project method:
- Clear formulation of the task. It is also important that the problem be socially significant.
- An important stage is planning, when methods of solving a problem are discussed and a specific desired result of activity is indicated.
- The next stage is research activity, when the project participants find the required information, comprehend it, systematize it.
- The practical stage involves the introduction of theoretical knowledge gained in practical activities as a result of the creation of the final product.
- Presentation of the result.
An important condition for carrying out the technology is the development at each stage of any visual result. So, when planning, you can draw up an action plan on paper or in electronic form. Having received the theoretical information, it is necessary to systematize it, for example, registration of creative folders.
Such educational technologies in the Dow are classified according to the types of activity:
- research (for example, a social issue or laboratory experiments on a selected topic);
- practical (the development of a corner of nature in the classroom, the creation of educational tools);
- creative (the production of a musical, the organization of sports competitions or an art exhibition);
- role (improvisation of the court session, theatrical reproduction of historical events).
In addition, projects can be held both at the class level, schools, and organized in the framework of inter-school, regional and international competitions and exhibitions. The method can differ in the duration of the conduct: from the hour of the hour to the yearly large projects.
Such educational technologies in the school are used increasingly, as they contribute to cognitive activity and increase the motivation of students.
Presentation of project method results
Separate consideration should be given to the presentation of finished projects. This is the most important stage of all the project activities of the participants. The presentation is of the greatest importance from the point of view of the educational process: students try to be responsible for the result of their activities, to argue their thoughts, to defend their position, to analyze and accept mistakes. Also important is the communication of the child in the team, the ability to compromise.
There are many kinds of project presentations:
- business game;
- creative evening;
- meeting and much more.
There are no restrictions in the choice of the presentation form for the finished project - fantasy, creativity and eccentricity of thinking are needed to create a new product as a result of work on the project.
Learning in a game form
The game from the very birth of the baby is an integral part of its full-fledged comprehensive development. But often in educational institutions forget about the important role of game activity, thereby violating the natural development of the child. As a consequence, the pupil's motivation for cognition disappears, and sometimes there is a complete rejection of the education process. Especially acute is the question of the use of gaming technology in the educational process of preschool children and primary school pupils. Gaming activities contribute not only to better learning of the material, but also motivates pupils to further cognitive actions. Without taking into account the psychological and age-specific features of children's development within the framework of the school time, the teacher not only reduces the interest of his students to learning, but also violates the desire for thinking and knowledge inherent in nature.
In modern pedagogy there are interesting developments in gaming technology, in particular, it is worth paying attention to the works of A. B. Pleshakova, O. A. Stepanova and A. V. Finogenov.
To date, there is a wide selection of educational and didactic games. They exist both in kind and in electronic form. The teacher can easily choose interesting tasks for kids, using modern technology. Children are easily remembered games in which questions and assignments are put by favorite cartoon characters, the child's answers are marked by musical accompaniment, and the result is clearly highlighted and argued. So, with the help of interactive games preschoolers learn colors, numbers, and letters, and schoolchildren can find the right game task for each section of the educational program. In addition, such modern educational technologies are highly efficient.
Method of investigation
Innovative educational technologies based on research, resemble the method of projects: there is a clear step-by-step sequence and independent activity of the participants of the work under the guidance of a mentor. An important task of the teacher is to interest the students with the topic and the task. For this, it is necessary to select topical questions for the growing generation.
The peculiarity of the research is the fact that it is necessary to obtain information on a given question from various sources: books, surveys, the Internet, experiments and the like. After receiving the materials, they should be fixed in free form. After that all the information is systematized, analyzed, generalized and the only ready result is obtained in the form of the solution of the task. Thus, students activate different types of mental activity, they are trained in comprehensive skills and skills.
Modern information educational technologies occupy a separate place in the educational process. Today, few people will be surprised by a two-year-old who bravely uses a smartphone, tablet or laptop. How, then, can we do without modern gadgets in the educational process? The training of our children is simply impossible without the introduction of information technology. Unfortunately, in most educational institutions, funding is not enough even for textbooks, so training on computers and electronic gadgets is only thought in the distant future. It should be noted that in European countries and America such educational technologies in teaching are used in schools for a long period of time. This brought many positive results.
Modern information technologies will allow the educational process to move to a completely new level. With the help of this pedagogical innovation, incredible opportunities for obtaining knowledge are opened up, for example, pupils can see remote places of nature or listen to the sounds of rare animals, travel through historical events, observe the process of work of a machine-building plant in the video format or admire rare cultural values. And all this - without leaving the school desk! Such fascinating visual education will not leave children indifferent and will bring high indicators of achievement of pedagogical goals. In addition, with the help of modern technologies it is much more practical to monitor the knowledge and skills of students, to evaluate achievements.
But even with the necessary electronic equipment, the question of preparing a teacher for such lessons is of no small importance. The use of educational technologies implies that the teacher fully possesses the necessary gadgets and programs. In addition, the very structure of the lesson is fundamentally different from the traditional one, and each lesson changes. For example, you can use modern gadgets to conduct a game task, submit new material, research work, while conducting knowledge control and so on.
With the advent of the Internet, distance learning technologies have taken on completely new forms. Note that this kind of obtaining knowledge has a long history. As early as the end of the 18th century, when postal communication was formed, training was known in this form. The first in the world educational institution of this type of education is the Open University of Great Britain, which was founded in 1969. In Russia, as an experimental method, distance learning was introduced in 1997.
Today, distance education technologies are rapidly expanding and modernizing due to a number of advantages:
- distance learning reduces the costs of education for both the student and the state as a whole;
- a resident of any corner of the planet can study at the chosen educational institution without the need for costs of living and moving;
- this type of training allows you to take into account the individual characteristics of the student, the rate of mastering his knowledge;
- comfortable conditions of study at home allow you to maximally tune in to gain knowledge;
- there is the possibility of selecting an individual timetable and the time of training.
But we can note shortcomings:
- technical malfunctions and breakdowns are possible;
- limited access to communication with the teacher;
- not issued a state diploma.
In addition, the student is deprived of the opportunity to communicate in the team and other simple student joys. It is also necessary to take into account the fact that distance education is not developed enough in our country. This form of education is most often used either for children who can not attend an educational institution or are transferred to external studies, or are used to undergo further training, retraining specialists, and studying foreign language courses on a fee basis.
How can such educational technologies be used in class? Distance learning technologies are implemented in the following ways:
- Widely apply the system of mass online courses (MOOKS) without limits on the number of listeners.
- Classes in the chat, Skype. It is possible to conduct collective and individual lessons through online video communication between the teacher and students.
- Classes using e-mail. In this case, the teacher sends the lesson material and assignments to the student, which must be completed and sent back for verification at the specified time.
Classify the types of distance learning can be as follows:
- free, paid, premium;
- with restriction on the number of participants and without restriction;
- without pedagogical support and with the help of a teacher;
- available at a specific time and with free access.
Even with significant shortcomings, distance learning is a progressive pedagogical technology. An increasing number of educational institutions offer applicants this form of education.
Choosing educational technologies for introduction into the learning process, pedagogical workers need to be able to professionally apply them in practice. To do this, you should regularly take refresher courses, follow the novelties of modern information technologies and learn to adapt quickly to the changing conditions of modern life.