Modern society needs a completely new type of people. In the age of powerful development of technologies of various directions, a person simply must possess such qualities as flexibility of thinking, ability to quickly assimilate new knowledge, communication, ability to plan, make decisions and much more. How to achieve the tasks set by time? It is necessary to revise the approach to the process of education of the younger generation. In particular, gradually introduce educational technologies into the pedagogical process.
Why do we need innovative educational technology?
Unfortunately, traditional education cannot ensure the development of the future generation in accordance with the new demands of society. The system of education in our country needs fundamental changes. Innovative educational technologies will help to cope with a whole range of pedagogical problems.
The traditional learning system involves the passive assimilation of existing knowledge. The only source of information transfer is the teacher. The teacher is considered the undisputed leader of the pedagogical process during the lesson. Thus, it is quite difficult to develop the ability of children to think independently.
Modern requirements for the future generation imply a radically opposite approach to the student. Today, most children of school age have access to the Internet as a means of searching and receiving any information. Therefore, new educational technologies are changing the role of the teacher in the process of transferring knowledge. The teacher should only imperceptibly direct and help pupils to “get” their own knowledge, setting certain conditions, tasks and search criteria.
That is why educational technologies were introduced according to the Federal State Educational Standards (Federal State Educational Standard). They are able to fulfill the social order set by society.
What is educational technology?
In order to understand pedagogical innovations, it is necessary to understand the essence of the term “educational technologies”. Denotes this concept of a comprehensively directed set of pedagogical techniques, methods and methods of conducting educational activities by a teacher to achieve the goals.
Pedagogical technologies GEF
For the purpose of global change of the entire system, educational technologies on the GEF were introduced. The essence of the pedagogical innovations indicated in the document consists not so much in the process of mastering knowledge as in evaluating the result obtained. They are aimed at the development of independent thinking and obtaining a visual result of mental activity. The following pedagogical technologies are distinguished, which are directly introduced into the educational process of both preschool and school educational institutions:
- problem learning;
- developmental education;
- project method;
- game as a way of knowing;
- research activities;
- creative work in a team;
- application of information technology;
- integration training;
- personality-oriented learning;
- modular education system.
The founder of developmental education is considered a psychologist L. S. Vygotsky. Schools in which they practice the use of modern educational technologies in the developmental direction appeared in the 1950s. Their founders were L. V. Zankov and D. B. Elkonin. The principle of developmental training is to choose the material for the lesson, focus on the so-called zone of proximal development. Vygotsky divided the children's knowledge into 3 levels:
- Information that children know.
- Information you do not know.
- The zone of proximal development is an intermediate section between the first and second levels. At this stage, students have enough knowledge to get new ones. In such a situation, the child must overcome the difficulties, relying on the existing skills in order to independently learn the unknown. Thus, developing educational technologies in pre-school educational institutions make the child an active subject of pedagogical activity: the student is aware of the need for knowledge and gets a visual result of his activity.
The emerging problem situation induces a person to the thought process to find a solution to the problem. Based on this fact, such pedagogical innovation as problem-based learning was developed. The use of educational technologies of this type implies the presence of a problem situation, a question. The student, trying to answer the assigned task, uses various thought processes, is engaged in independent search for information, selects extraordinary solutions, uses research activities and much more. So, problem education includes a whole range of different methods that are used to solve the problem.
As mentioned above, the task of modern education is not just to give knowledge to pupils, but to teach children to put this knowledge into practice, to be able to connect theoretical materials with problem life situations. Modern educational technologies in the first place seek to implement precisely such pedagogical goals.
The project method is a whole orderly system that involves several stages of work on a specific issue. The essence of the technology is to create a finished visual product - this is a mandatory rule of this method. The student participates in the development of an action plan, its implementation and monitoring of implementation. But most importantly, the child sees a concrete result of his activity, confirming the correctness of the chosen decision and the implementation of the idea in practice. Educational technologies of this type help students to trace the connection between theoretical knowledge and practical activity. As a result, comes the awareness of the need for learning to live in society.
Stages of the project method:
- Clear formulation of the task. It is also important that the problem is socially significant.
- An important stage is planning, when methods of solving a problem are discussed and a specific desired result of activities is indicated.
- The next stage is research activity, when project participants find the required information, comprehend it, systematize it.
- The practical stage involves the introduction of theoretical knowledge gained in practice as a result of the creation of the final product.
- Presentation of the result.
An important condition for the technology is the development at each stage of a visual result. So, when planning, you can draw up an action plan on paper or in electronic form. Having received theoretical information, it is necessary to systematize it, for example, by creating creative folders.
Such educational technologies in preschool are classified by type of activity:
- research (for example, a social issue or laboratory experiments on a selected topic);
- practical (developing a nature corner in the classroom, creating educational aids);
- creative (staging a musical, organizing a sporting event or an art exhibition);
- role-playing (improvisation of the court session, theatrical reproduction of historical events).
In addition, projects can be carried out at the class level, schools, and organized in the framework of inter-school, regional and international competitions and exhibitions. The method may also vary in duration: from the lesson hour to the annual large-scale projects.
Such educational technologies are being used more and more at school as they promote cognitive activity and increase student motivation.
Presentation of project method results
Separately, you should consider the presentation of finished projects. This is the most important stage of all project activities of the participants. The presentation is most important from the point of view of the educational process: students try to take responsibility for the result of their activities, to argue their thoughts, to defend their position, to analyze and accept mistakes. Also important role played by the communication of the child in the team, the ability to compromise.
There are many types of project presentations:
- business game;
- creative evening;
- meeting and more.
There are no restrictions on the choice of the presentation form of the finished project - you need imagination, creativity and unusual thinking to create a new product as a result of working on the project.
Learning in the form of a game
The game since the birth of the baby is an integral part of its full comprehensive development. But often in educational institutions they forget about the important role of play activity, thereby disrupting the natural development of the child. As a result, the student's motivation to learn disappears, and sometimes a full-fledged rejection of the educational process occurs. Particularly acute is the question of the use of gaming technology in the educational process of preschoolers and primary school students. Playing activity contributes not only to a better mastery of the material, but also motivates students to further cognitive actions. Without taking into account the psychological and age peculiarities of the development of children during school time, the teacher not only helps to reduce the interest of his pupils in learning, but also disrupts the desire for thinking and cognition, inherent in nature.
In modern pedagogy, there are interesting developments of gaming technologies, in particular, one should pay attention to the works of A. B. Pleshakova, O. A. Stepanova and A. V. Finogenova.
To date, a wide range of educational and didactic games. They exist both in natural form and in electronic form. It is easy for a teacher to choose interesting tasks for kids using modern technologies. Children can easily remember the games in which questions and tasks are put on by their favorite cartoon characters, the child’s responses are marked by musical accompaniment, and the result is clearly highlighted and reasoned. So, with the help of interactive games, preschoolers learn colors, numbers, and letters, and schoolchildren can choose the right game task literally to each section of the educational program. In addition, such modern educational technologies are highly efficient.
Innovative educational technologies based on research resemble a project method: there is a clear gradual sequence and independent activities of the participants under the guidance of a mentor. An important task of the teacher is to interest students in the topic and task. To do this, select the relevant issues for the younger generation.
A feature of the study is the fact that it is necessary to obtain information on a given question from various sources: books, surveys, the Internet, experiments, and the like. After receiving the materials, be sure to fix them in free form. After that, all information is systematized, analyzed, summarized, and the only finished result is obtained in the form of a solution to the problem. Thus, students activate different types of mental activity, learn comprehensive skills and habits.
Modern information educational technologies occupy a separate place in the educational process. Today, few people will surprise a two-year-old baby, boldly using a smartphone, tablet or laptop. How, then, can we do without modern gadgets in the educational process? Education of our children is simply impossible without the introduction of information technology. Unfortunately, in most educational institutions there is not enough funding even for textbooks, therefore, learning through computers and electronic gadgets is thought only in the distant future. It should be noted that in European countries and America such educational technologies in education have been used in schools for a long time. This brought a lot of positive results.
Modern information technologies will allow the educational process to move to a whole new level. With the help of this pedagogical innovation, incredible knowledge opportunities up to this point open up, for example, students can see remote corners of nature or listen to the sounds of rare animals, travel through historical events, watch the process of the engineering plant in a video format, or admire rare cultural values. And all this - without leaving the school desk! Such fascinating visual learning will not leave indifferent children and will bring high rates of achievement of the stated pedagogical goals. In addition, with the help of modern technology it is much more practical to control the knowledge and skills of students, to evaluate achievements.
But even with the necessary electronic equipment, the issue of teacher training for conducting such lessons remains important. The use of educational technologies assumes that the teacher is fully fluent in the necessary gadgets and programs. In addition, the structure of the lesson itself is radically different from the traditional and each lesson changes. For example, it is possible to use modern gadgets for conducting a game task, submitting new material, research work, while conducting knowledge control, and so on.
With the advent of the Internet, distance learning technologies have taken on completely new forms. Note that this kind of knowledge acquisition has a long history. At the end of the XVIII century, when postal service was formed, it was known to study in this form. The world's first educational institution of this type of education is the Open University of Great Britain, which was founded in 1969. In Russia, distance learning was introduced as an experimental method in 1997.
Today, distance learning technologies are rapidly expanding and modernizing due to a number of advantages:
- distance learning reduces the cost of education for both the student and the state as a whole;
- a resident of any corner of the planet can study at a chosen educational institution without the need for living expenses and relocation;
- this type of training allows you to take into account the individual characteristics of the student, the pace of mastering their knowledge;
- comfortable conditions for learning at home allow you to tune in to get the most knowledge;
- there is the possibility of selecting an individual schedule and training time.
But you can note the disadvantages:
- technical failures and breakdowns are possible;
- limited access to communication with the teacher;
- not issued a state diploma.
In addition, the student is deprived of the opportunity to communicate in a team and other simple student joys. It is also worth considering the fact that distance education is insufficiently developed in our country. This form of education is most often used either for children who cannot attend an educational institution or have been transferred to external studies, or are used to undergo advanced training, retraining of specialists, and also to study foreign language courses on a fee basis.
How to apply such educational technologies in the classroom? Distance learning technologies are implemented in the following ways:
- The system of mass online courses (MOOX) is widely used without restriction on the number of students.
- Classes in chat, "Skype." It is possible to conduct collective and individual lessons through the online video link between the teacher and students.
- Classes using e-mail. In this case, the teacher sends the student the lesson material and tasks for him, which must be completed and sent for review within a specified time frame.
To classify types of distance learning in this way:
- free, paid, premium;
- with restriction on the number of participants and without limitation;
- without pedagogical support and with the help of a teacher;
- available at specific times and with free access.
Even with significant shortcomings, distance learning is a progressive educational technology. An increasing number of educational institutions offer applicants this form of training.
Choosing educational technologies for implementation in the learning process, teaching staff should be able to apply them professionally in practice. To do this, you should regularly take refresher courses, follow the innovations of modern information technologies and learn to quickly adapt to the changing conditions of modern life.