Calculation of norms of depreciation for the period carried out in the manner stipulated in the tax code. In this case the property, the products of intellectual activity and other objects, which are at the payer's property and intended for profit. The value of these material assets is repaid by accrual of depreciation. Such values include asset, useful life greater than 12 months. While it cost more than 40 thousand. we next Consider how to determine the rate of depreciation.
The assets accepted for accounting at initial cost. It is defined according to article 257 of the tax code. The distribution amount is made in accordance with the periods of useful operation. This time is set by the payer independently on the date when the property is put into operation. Not subject to depreciation natural objects (land, subsoil, water and other natural resources), inventories, goods, securities, objects of unfinished construction, etc.
The right to benefit
Taxpayers can include in the cost reporting period expenses on capital investments in the amount of not more than 10% of the original cost. For fixed assets that belong to groups 3 to 7 the allowed 30%. This benefit is not valid for assets obtained gratuitously. If the payer uses this right, the corresponding objects after operational input is included in depreciation groups according to the initial PT-ti net benefits. If within five years from this moment, the OS was implemented, the amount of the cost previously taken into account in preparation of the database must be restored and included in the calculations.
Depreciation: depreciation rate
When computing the parameter, which is expressed in % of the price of capital. In each period the cost of services/goods is complemented by the index. Depreciation rates of fixed assets are presented as a percentage of the cover price depreciation of the property. Thus, as a key goal the inclusion of the indicator in terms of setting an economic compensation of physical and moral wear, which necessarily will take place during the manufacturing process. Attenuation can be represented as a smooth transfer of the fixed asset value for manufactured goods.
Features of calculation
Depreciation is a process conducted on a monthly basis to the relevant departments. This takes into account the current book price of OPF. Used in calculations for uniform norms of depreciation charges. As base serves the classification of the indicators according to the various inventory objects or groups of assets present on the balance sheet.
Uniform norms of depreciation
They are provided as established by the state of percent cover the cost of OPF. The annual rate of depreciation allows you to see the total payment amount for the entire period. This indicator is not considered to be fixed. Periodically it is reviewed in the relevant agencies. Benchmarks are used by all enterprises, regardless of the specifics of the organization, the scope of activities or forms of ownership. Depreciation policy is, by its nature, acts as a major component of scientific and technical activities at the country level. Setting the indicators and the order of evaluation, the state makes the regulation of rates, control over the nature of reproduction in these or other industries. The average rate of depreciation allows, among other things, to identify the rate of depreciation. It, in turn, can set the parameters of restore objects. How is the rate of depreciation on equipment? For calculation used the ratio of the two parameters. In particular, the amount of depreciation in the annual calculation relates to the price of OPF.
The distinctive features of the system
The scheme of calculation of depreciation was introduced during the Soviet era. Among the distinctive features of the system include:
- Straight-line calculation method.
- The General rule of depreciation.
- Two types of computations (for major repairs and replacement of equipment).
- Transfers between enterprises.
- The inclusion of an indicator in the cost of services/goods, etc.
In 1991, there have been some changes. Adjusted, in particular, has been the rate of depreciation.
The new system provides that the rate of depreciation may vary depending on the type of OPF. The current regulations do not provide for the amount for the repair. Currently, such activities are carried out by the enterprise from the cost of production. Together with this can form a separate Fund, which is intended for repairs. Another change is the discontinuation of depreciation at the end of a certain period of operation (norms). This, in particular, relates to vehicles and other equipment. Previously, the rate of depreciation was used throughout the period of application. This did not matter, which term is intended appliances. For other OPF form, features and the rate of depreciation remained unchanged. This means that the determination of the amounts is carried out over the entire service life. Equally important today is an opportunity to engage in accelerated depreciation for the active part of the production. For example, this applies to cars, transport, machine tools etc. the Balance price of the specified objects is transferred to the cost of production. The maturity decreases by almost half. It is necessary to enhance the interest of enterprises to update the OPF. Small companies can be attributed OF (50%) of the cost if their service life more than 3 years.
The advantages of acceleration
Due to such charging, you can:
- To reduce income tax.
- At an accelerated pace to upgrade the active production parts.
- To create a Fund accumulation for renovation.
- To prevent moral and physical wear of active part OPF, maintaining them at the proper level.
- To obtain funds for replacement of equipment.
All this, in turn, allows the company to form a powerful base for improving production, to produce high quality products and minimize cost.
It should be noted that accelerated depreciation can be used for all assets, but only for those who:
- Have a lifespan of more than 3 years.
- Used for the manufacture of new materials, equipment, computer including etc.
In other cases accelerated depreciation can only be done in coordination with the state agencies.
Since 1992 there are changes, in accordance with which it is possible to determine the annual rate of depreciation not only BPA, but also on intangible assets. Many companies these adjustments allow you to remain competitive and make large profits. To the account taken of the following intangible assets:
- Transmitted by the participants as contributions to the statutory Fund at a cost established by the parties.
- Purchased with money from third parties or organizations at the actual cost of purchasing and training to use.
- Received free of charge from other persons or companies at the price determined by experts.
Methods of computation
In practice, the rate of depreciation for the period can be set in the following ways:
- Linear. In this case, is taken into account the initial cost of OPF and the depreciation rate of the beneficial use of the facility.
- Reduce the remainder. Calculation by this method is carried out on the basis of the residual value OPF the beginning of the period depreciation in the accounting useful life of assets.
- The cancellation of the number of years of use. In this case, the calculation is carried out according to the initial value of the OPF and the annual ratio of the number of years remaining until the end of the service, and the total period of use.
- Write-off rates with a proportional accounting of the volume of goods/works.
A feature of the last method is to use a natural measure of the amount of goods/services during the reporting period and the ratio of the primary value object and intended for release all the time of beneficial use of BPA.