The oldest water pump can probably be considered a mill wheel with jugs attached to it. Such a device is capable of raising water to a small height, as a rule, not exceeding a few meters. Despite the seeming simplicity of the design, such water pumps in the Middle Ages of the last millennium in Holland drained huge acreage. The propellers of the mechanisms were the blades of wind turbines.
Currently, for pumping liquids used a great variety of various technical solutions. Water is driven under the pistons, pushed with screws and augers, twisted between gear teeth, sucked into rarefied zones created by gas jets or the same liquid, and so on.
But there is one construction, invented, by the way, not so long ago - in the 18th century, which is now used many times more often than its “colleagues”.
Device centrifugal water pump
A distinctive feature of the design under consideration is simplicity. The centrifugal water pump consists of only two parts - the cochlea (the device body) and the wheel. When the latter is set in motion, its blades carry away the fluid in the pump, forcing it to rotate.
As a result, centrifugal force begins to act on the water. It "presses" the liquid to the outer walls of the body. In technical language, this means that in the area of the outer circumference a zone of increased pressure is created, which pushes water into the pressure channel. In the center of the wheel, on the contrary, a rarefaction zone is formed, due to which liquid from the suction nozzle enters the center of the cochlea.
The blades of the pressure wheel give a curved shape, thanks to this decision, the blades as if push the liquid out. The pressure created by the centrifugal pump with curved blades is higher.
Devices that allow pumping fluids have different designs. But all of them are conventionally divided into two large groups - discrete and continuous action.
The centrifugal water pump belongs to the group of devices of continuous action. In addition to him, this group also includes axial structures. What it is? An axial pump is a pipe inside which a screw is installed (in the form of blades or auger). When rotating, its liquid begins to move along the pipe along the axis, whence the name of the pump is axial. This design has a high performance, but can not boast of significant pressure. Continuous pumps are also jet and vortex (ring).
The most striking example of a discrete (volumetric) pump is a piston. The second option, often used in engineering, is a gear design. Volumetric pumps differ from continuous ones by much greater pressure, but their productivity is lower.
Features and benefits of centrifugal pumps
Centrifugal water pump is deservedly popular with designers for several reasons. One of them is, of course, the phenomenal simplicity of design. It is their most often found in boiler rooms and water pipelines. Repair of water centrifugal pumps often comes down to replacing the drive shaft seals and bearings. From long work from time to time wears out, being exposed to corrosion, the impeller (impeller). More in the pump just nothing to break, which can not be said about any other design, such as a piston.
The centrifugal water pump is not able to create pressure available to the piston. But such structures can be made multistage, when each subsequent stage increases the pressure. This solution allows to obtain output of up to 100 kgf / cm 2.
Due to the simplicity of the design and excellent performance, centrifugal pumps have no equal in heat and power engineering and water supply. They are also responsible for security. So, the water pumps of the vast majority of modern fire engines are centrifugal.
Many miniature designs of centrifugal pumps are found in engineering. For example, a windshield washer pump for a passenger car, fuel injection pump engines are, as a rule, centrifugal products.
A centrifugal water pump with its own hands sometimes makes homegrown Kulibins for watering beds in the private sector. Their crafts are various rotating designs of pipes. The water in such pipes under the action of the same centrifugal force flies out of the channel, and due to its rapid rotation it is well sprayed.