It is unlikely that any entrepreneur will want to pay penalties due to non-compliance with the recommendations regarding the use of a particular tax system. Therefore, today the calculation of the correct fiscal burden is one of the key processes of the operating activities of a business representative. What it is and what its role in the system of obligations, we will discuss in the article below.
The concept and types of tax burden
Each entity in the implementation of its operating activities must give a full report to the results of its own operation. Therefore, often calculated the tax burden of the enterprise, which gives a comprehensive description of the fiscal policy of the business representative. According to the results of the calculation, which will determine the total mass of the burden, even the business entity himself will be able to determine how much his activity will cause suspicion among the authorized bodies.
Among other things, thanks to the correct calculation of the tax burden, it is possible to predict the level of fiscal oppression in future periods. As for their classification, it as such does not exist, so the burden can be ranked only in accordance with the tax groups, which we will discuss a little later.
Therefore, we will clarify that the fiscal burden is the definition of the coefficient of obligations to the state relative to funds, net profit and other assets of a business entity.
Methods for determining the tax burden
In order to determine the level of tax burden, there are several approaches. For example, the national method, which oversees the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, consists in the following features:
- the level of tax oppression is determined by the ratio of the share of obligations paid to the treasury to revenue;
- while the latter also includes other income, which is calculated as a percentage.
Here, for example, some financial experts are of the opinion that the fiscal burden should be calculated relative to only one tax – on value added. Because it holds a key position in pricing, and in operations in General.
And perhaps the most interesting way the tax burden is calculated based on the source of payment of the obligation. Such a method implies the distribution of the fiscal burden according to the classes of occurrence and the corresponding calculation of the proportion of each of them in the operational activity of the enterprise.
Classification of fiscal obligations
It is easy to guess that the tax burden directly depends on the fiscal obligations of the business entity. Therefore, it is extremely important to understand the essence and role of each of them. So, for example, the tax burden by type of activity, according to the methods of compensation, is:
- indirect (superimposed on top of the cost of goods, therefore, peculiar only to trade operations);
- direct (calculated from the general level of income of a business entity, and therefore is inherent in all).
According to the aggregate amount of fiscal burden, obligations are:
- progressive (grow faster than revenue);
- regressive (a lower rate is characterized by a higher rate, and vice versa);
- proportional (characterized by a single tax rate).
The mechanism of taxation of business entities
The order of charging and the level of tax burden regulated by the current legislation, namely the Tax code of the Russian Federation and other normative legal acts on the implementation of fiscal policy.
Our state system is multi-level, therefore it is implemented in three steps: at the federal, regional and local levels.
The first level is to impose the burden of VAT, excise taxes, income tax and personal income, a single social contribution, state duty and collection of the right to inherit, use of water resources and minerals.
Regional taxation applies to gambling, transport services and property use by legal entities.
Well, local fiscal fees as the smallest category are in property collections from individuals and land burden.
Traditional fiscal system
Perhaps the most frequently used business entities. Therefore, there must be, and was the traditional system where the tax burden on profits as its base takes the total volume of sales and non-operating income.
Similarly, the sum of both operational and extraordinary expenses is taken as the nominal consumption. At the same time, labor (wages of employees), depreciation and material (direct purchase of raw materials and semi-finished products) costs are attributed to production.
The peculiarity of the imposition of fiscal obligations on property in the traditional system is the adoption as the tax base of the average annual book value of the non-current asset.
The VAT rate is 18%, the tax burden on profits is 20%. The basis of the latter is taken gross gross income, as mentioned above.
Simplified tax system
Simplified, as it is commonly called in taxpayer circles, has been operating on the territory of the Russian Federation for over two decades, and during this time it has been repeatedly modified and innovated.
The use of this system is the only way to exist for business entities that belong to small and medium-sized businesses. Since it significantly reduces the level of tax burden for a certain group of entrepreneurs, which gives them the opportunity to receive a stable income, and not to give all revenues to the state treasury as obligations.
There are only two rates in the simplified system: one for those business entities that use the difference between profit and cost as a tax base, and it is 6%; and the second levies gross income and is 15%.
Imputed fiscal system
Also, a rather low tax burden is applied in the imputed fiscal system. It differs from the previous one in that it is mandatory for a specific list of activities specified in the current Tax Code of the Russian Federation.
The basis for the accrual of fiscal obligations is the so-called imputed income, which is the potential profit of a business entity minus disposable operating costs.
For a single rate, it is customary to accept a tax of 15%. However, in the calculation of the fiscal burden there is one characteristic feature - the base is subject to multiplication by the profitability ratios, which differ depending on the particular business of this or that business. However, this figure may vary monthly.
Features of tax planning
Since today a well-calculated tax burden lies at the heart of a successful and prosperous business, due attention should be paid to planning it within the framework of fiscal policy.
For several decades now, successful businessmen have been practicing medium-term budgeting of obligations to the treasury in the next fiscal year. Its features lie in the fact that this process increases the overall efficiency of the enterprise. After all, you see, is it really possible to call a business ineffective if the fiscal government bodies are completely satisfied with its reporting? For it does not have any violations, it was compiled by competent specialists, and the stakes, and the policy - what is necessary, do not complain.
As for multi-year tax planning, it is rather informational in nature, since it can change in any year, either together with reforms of domestic policy, or due to changes in the current legislation.