Very often you can hear the question: "Primary vocational education - this is what?" First you need to understand what this system is. First of all, it should be noted that this is one of the main subsystems of Russian education, which implements professional production programs. She issues diplomas to qualified specialists of all areas of useful activity.
Programs implemented in institutions of primary vocational education
Yearly training of professionals. Upon completion of the training, the graduate is issued a certificate.
The system of primary vocational education in the Russian Federation consists of more than one thousand eight hundred specialized institutions, which annually prepare about eight hundred thousand qualified graduates. Of these, six hundred and fifty thousand are trained on full-time form.
Primary vocational education is primarily an educational and educational system. This is the basis for a large-scale and diversified "pyramid" to train the country's human resources.
The main task
Initial vocational education is an orderly system for the implementation of successive educational programs and state standards of various levels and focus. Therefore, its main task is to create optimal conditions for the possibility of satisfying the aspirations of the individual to obtain a certain specialty. Primary vocational education is designed to ensure a good training of personnel that will be competitive in the changing conditions of market relations. With the help of this system, the country's economy will be constantly provided with skilled workers.
Primary vocational education in Russia implements programs aimed at accelerated vocational training, retraining, raising the skills of a worker or an employee.
Primary importance in these institutions is attached to the organization of the upbringing of the younger generation. In a single pedagogical structure of education, this issue is given a key position that is dedicated to preparing young people for difficult life situations.
In modern society, a person needs a high return on knowledge, skills and strength. In the production process, this is also no exception. Everyone should have special qualities that distinguish him from other people. Only in this case a person will be competitive in the conditions of market relations. This factor will contribute to the development of responsibility both for oneself and for others, and will also help to strengthen confidence in their professional future.
The most effective way of such a development of the individual is to create such a system of upbringing, which would involve the systematization of goals and objectives, as well as methods and forms of training the younger generation in institutions of primary vocational education. At the same time, it is necessary to organize the interaction of absolutely every subject and object of the upbringing process. In this case, the students will become firmly established as active participants in professional development.
the main objective
Initial vocational education is a guarantor of the realization of the citizen's right to receive free and public education. Therefore, it is necessary to satisfy the individual's needs for educational services at the appropriate level. This should take place taking into account the latest trends and the volatility of the labor market.
History of origin and development
Initial vocational education in Russia arose after the relevant reforms by Peter I. Some of the first educational institutions where professionals were trained opened in the early eighteenth century. These included artillery, navigational, geodetic, engineering and medical schools.
The most popular specialized educational institutions of the eighteenth century were mining plants, open at the Petrovsky factory. They were located in the Urals and in the Altai Territory. The diploma of the primary vocational education of the mining school presupposed the existence of extensive knowledge in the field of mining. It was these educational institutions that later became the foundation for the development of vocational education institutions in our country.
Nevertheless, pre-revolutionary Russia limited the education of women, and the education of the population had a peculiarity of class and class division.
Beginning in the 1920s, domestic professional pedagogy began to be intensively formed and developed as a separate independent branch of scientific knowledge.
Duration of training
In general, the period of obtaining primary vocational education is directly related to the level of knowledge. Received after the end of the ninth grade prepare for the profession for two or three years. A student who is enrolled at the end of the eleventh grade is trained for one or two years. Despite this, some of the primary professional institutions are shifted to the profiles of technical schools. In this regard, the training period is extended to three or four years. This period is determined by the level of education of the student.
There is a concept of reorientation of primary vocational education. It is associated with the need for retraining of teaching staff, the modernization of special equipment, the improvement of conditions and the level of wages.
The main problem is that the budgetary funds for financing this program are not always enough, in connection with which it is necessary to attract additional flow from extrabudgetary resources. To cope with the task of preparing and internships for students, educational institutions create production workshops. This allows the masters to retain their skills, and also opens up new sources of extrabudgetary funding.