Let's ask the question: "How does the proverb differ from the proverb?"
We begin our discussion with a brief definition. A stable combination of words expressing an emotional assessment of events or objects is called proverbs. We give the corresponding examples.
Reasoning further and analyzing the phenomenon of the proverb, we proceed to its description. Our answer to the main question of the article is "how does the proverb differ from the saying": the proverb is inherently a phrase or phrase that affects the imagery of speech, its specificity. It bears in itself an imprint of national identity, features of a national character.
Stand out the same proverbs global selection of millions and millions of phrases and word combinations, thanks to the most successful display of the essence of certain objects or phenomena. Let us note that sayings do not carry in themselves the function of teaching, instruction. They are not dependent, because they only characterize a certain object or its actions. In addition, sayings do not express a complete judgment.
The meaning of sayings
The meaning of proverbs and sayings becomes more understandable if we trace how they arose. And the stories of their creation are curious. Let us give an example of the occurrence of two sayings.
"Scapegoat". This proverb comes from a Hebrew religious tradition. It is based on the rite of remission of sins. At its implementation, the priest shifted the sins of the flock to the goat by laying his hands on the head of the latter. Then the animal was driven into the desert.
"Nick down". To the trauma of the olfactory organ this saying has not the slightest relation. In ancient times a "nose" was called a special plate worn by illiterate people. On it were made nicks, symbolizing the binding business, which must be done in the future. If a person was noted for forgetfulness, he used as a notebook with such a "nose".
Continuing our reasoning about how proverbs differ from sayings, we characterize the essence of the phenomenon of the proverb.
Unlike sayings, proverbs demonstrate a certain life experience accumulated by the people. VI Dal in his dictionary of Russian proverbs especially notes the similarity of the maximally compact parable and proverb. After all, both contain a deep understanding of the essence of the object or phenomenon. Proverbs are brief utterances that carry in themselves the undeniable logic of common sense.
Returning to the question: "How do proverbs differ from sayings?" - we come to the necessity of their preliminary analysis. Determining belonging to a particular speech structure, it is important to catch a logical connection in the phrase "cause-effect". If such a link is present, then we have a proverb. Let's consider examples.
It's easy to see that there is a certain rhythm in the construction of the proverb. In this language construction there are no excess words, and it really expresses worldly wisdom, the justice of which is beyond doubt.
The opinion of linguists
Let's get acquainted with the views of the linguists VV Vinogradov and AE Anikin, who disclose in detail the difference between the proverb and the proverb. Scientists have found the answer by analyzing the structures of these units of speech.
In particular, Academician V. V. Vinogradov defined three types of sayings:
- Indivisible (phraseological fusion). For example: "beat the buckets", "the dog ate".
- With a value determined not by individual components, but by their semantic connection (phraseological unity). For example: "our money was crying," "and it is not enough for him".
- Characterized by a combination of words related to each other (phraseological combinations). For example: "Inexhaustible drunkenness."
As for the proverbial phenomenon, the doctor of philology A.E. Anikin showed it as a unique substantive form connected by an internal artistic unity. He marked the characteristic features of the proverb:
- a huge generalized meaning, concluded in one sentence;
- high concentration of thought;
- the concentration of all proverbial components on one phenomenon or fact.
Anikin identified two main patterns, according to which proverbs were created:
- One-part (proposal, sealed according to the rules of agreement and communication). For example: "Empty mill grind to no avail".
- Two-part (the integrity of a complex sentence is determined by the connection of its parts). For example: "Quietly go - you will continue".
Thus, professionals from linguistics, analyzing language structures, acted rationally, figuring out how the proverb differs from the proverb. Examples of these expressions they generalized and analyzed.
We noted the differences between proverbs and sayings. Next, we will consider what they have in common.
What is primary: the difference of the proverb from the proverb or their unity?
It is noteworthy that the topic of this article assumes the discovery of semantic differences of proverbs from sayings. However, it is important to remember that both speech constructions have common functional features. Created in antiquity and surviving to our time, they served as a support for the people's way of life. In addition, proverbs and sayings were both moral principles.
The subject view on the commonality of proverbs and sayings is demonstrated by scientists. Sukhovei Irina Leonidovna in their thesis originally classified them together and uniformly as a monotematic artistic text, minimal in volume and expressing a single thought.
Instead of concluding
Admittedly, it is relatively relative to what the proverb differs from the saying. Examples often show that the proverb is part of the proverb. Occasionally even specialists find it difficult to classify them strictly. Folk folklore is worthless.
The ability to use phraseological units is an important criterion for the development of speech and language skills. Quite often proverbs and sayings are used by statesmen. In the writings of classic writers, the difference between the proverb and the saying is particularly noticeable. Examples from the literature show that in one case, the text is given emotionality, and in the other, persuasiveness.
Quite often the source of proverbs and sayings are the literary works themselves. Just remember: "There is still powder in the flasks" from "Taras Bulba" (Gogol) and "And Vaska listens and eats" (Krylov).