Let us ask ourselves the question: "How does a proverb differ from a saying?"
The saying is this.
We begin our reasoning with a brief definition. A stable combination of words expressing an emotional assessment of events or objects is called saying. We give the relevant examples.
Arguing further and analyzing the phenomenon of the sayings, we proceed to its characteristics. Our answer to the main question of the article is “how a proverb differs from a saying”: a saying in its essence is a phrase or phrase that affects the figurativeness of speech, its character. It bears the imprint of national identity, features of the national character.
The same sayings were distinguished by a global selection of millions and millions of phrases and phrases, thanks to the successful display of the essence of certain objects or phenomena. Note that the sayings do not carry the function of teaching, admonition. They are not dependent, since they only characterize a certain object or its actions. In addition, sayings do not express a complete judgment.
Meaning of sayings
The meaning of proverbs and sayings becomes clearer if we trace how they arose. And the stories of their creation are curious. Let us give an example of the emergence of two sayings.
"Scapegoat". This saying comes from the Hebrew religious tradition. It is based on the rite of absolution. In its implementation, the priest passed the sins of the flock on the goat by laying hands on the head of the latter. Then the animal was cast into the wilderness.
"Nick down". To the injury of the organ of smell, this saying has nothing to do. In ancient times, the “nose” was a special nameplate carried by illiterate people. On it were made notches, symbolizing the obligatory deeds that need to be done in the future. If a person was forgetful, then he used such a “nose” as a notebook.
Continuing our reasoning about how proverbs differ from sayings, we characterize the essence of the proverb phenomenon.
Unlike the sayings, proverbs demonstrate a certain life experience accumulated by the people. V. I. Dahl in his dictionary of Russian proverbs emphasizes the similarity of the most compact parable and proverbs. After all, both of them contain a deep understanding of the essence of an object or phenomenon. Proverbs are short sentences that carry the undeniable logic of common sense.
Returning to the question: “How do proverbs differ from sayings?” - we come to the need for their preliminary analysis. Defining belonging to a particular speech construct, it is important to catch in the phrase a logical connection of the type “cause-effect”. If such a link is present, then we have a proverb. Consider the examples.
It is easy to catch that in the very construction of the proverb there is a certain rhythm. There are no redundant words in this linguistic construct, and it really expresses worldly wisdom, the justice of which is beyond doubt.
Opinion of linguists
Let us get acquainted with the views of the linguists V. V. Vinogradov and A. E. Anikin, who disclose in detail how the proverb differs from the proverb. Scientists have found the answer by analyzing the data structures of speech units.
In particular, Academician V.V. Vinogradov defined three types of sayings:
- Indivisible (phraseological adhesions). For example: "to beat the thumbs", "the dog ate."
- With the value determined not by individual components, but by their semantic connection (phraseological unity). For example: “our money was crying”, “he has little sorrow”.
- Characterized by a combination of words related to each other (phraseological combinations). For example: "drinking free drinking".
As for the proverb phenomenon, the doctor of philology A. E. Anikin showed it as a unique meaningful form, connected by internal artistic unity. He identified the characteristics of the proverb:
- a huge generalized meaning, concluded in one sentence;
- high concentration of thought;
- the concentration of all components of a proverb on a single phenomenon or fact.
Anikin identified two main patterns by which proverbs are created:
- Single-part (proposal, fastened according to the rules of coordination and communication). For example: “An empty mill grinds to no avail”.
- Two-part (the integrity of a complex sentence is determined by the connection of its parts). For example: “Slowly you go - you will continue”.
Thus, professionals from linguistics, analyzing language structures, acted rationally, finding out how the proverb differs from saying. Examples of these expressions, they summarized and analyzed.
We have noted the differences between proverbs and sayings. Next, consider what they have in common.
What comes first: the difference between proverbs and sayings or their unity?
It is noteworthy that the topic of this article assumes the detection of semantic differences between proverbs and sayings. However, it is important not to forget that both speech constructs have common functional features. Created in antiquity and reached our time, they served as a support for the way of life developed by the people. In addition, proverbs and sayings were both moral principles.
Scientists demonstrate a substantive look at the commonality of proverbs and sayings. Sukhovey Irina Leonidovna in her dissertation initially classified them jointly and uniformly as a monothematic artistic text, minimal in size and expressing one single thought.
Instead of conclusion
It must be admitted, rather relatively, what distinguishes a proverb from a saying. Examples often show that a saying is part of a proverb. Occasionally even experts find it difficult to classify them strictly. Bezdonon folklore.
The ability to use phraseological units is an important criterion for the development of speech and language proficiency. Often, proverbs and sayings are even statesmen. In the works of classic writers, proverbs differ from proverbs in particular. Examples from the literature show that in one case emotionality is attached to the text, and convincing in the other.
Often, the source of proverbs and sayings are literary works themselves. We only recall: “There is still life in the old dog” from “Taras Bulba” (Gogol) and “And Vaska listens and eats” (Krylov).