Spring morning of 29 April 1945, in Piazzale Loreto in Milan flocked crowds of people. Their eyes opened a terrible and never-seen-before picture – to the metal beams that served as floors, located in the gas station, was suspended by eight feet corpses. The face of one of them was disfigured beyond recognition, but those gathered knew that it belonged to the once-omnipotent dictator Benito Mussolini.
Son irreconcilable socialist
The Creator of the Italian fascist party, Benito Mussolini, a brief biography which formed the basis of this article, was born on 29 July 1883 in a small village of Varano di Costa. His father barely knew how to read and difficult to deduce own signature, but this did not prevent him to be one of the militant socialists of those years.
By nature, Benito Mussolini, was an exceptionally gifted child. For example, from the memoirs of contemporaries known that at the age of four the future Il Duce (the leader) is already free to read, and a year is quite confidently played the violin. But violent and cruel nature, inherited from his father, did not allow the boy to graduate from the Church school in Faenza, where, with great difficulty, put his parents.
Once your dispute with one of the high school Benito allowed with a knife, and only the intervention of the local Bishop saved him from certain jail. Already in those years the teenager acted as the leader of his comrades, but due to the peculiarities of nature never enjoyed their love, which, however, little he cared.
Young and active socialist
In 1900, Benito Mussolini, even as the pupils of the gymnasium, where he was transferred after the scandal in the Catholic school, he joined the Socialist party of Italy. Here he first showed his ability publicist, printing on the pages of Newspapers belonged to her, "Ravenna" and "Forli" sharp political articles. After graduation and receiving a diploma of teacher of elementary grades, Benito worked for some time at the village school, in parallel heading the local organization of socialists.
Since military service was not part of his plans upon reaching the appropriate age in 1902, Mussolini emigrated to Switzerland, where in those years lived numerous colony of Italians. Soon, thanks to the skill of speaking in front of a street audience and a good knowledge of the French language, he stood out from the General mass of their fellow countrymen. According to his biographers, here, the future Duce, for the first time, knowing the success, loved the attention of the crowd and the sound of applause.
A talented journalist and an active politician
However, very soon his emigrant life filled with idle conversations about the General well-being, over. In 1903, at the request of the Italian government, Benito was arrested for evading conscription. However, this time happily escaped prison, limited only by the deportation to the Homeland.
He returned to Italy and served in the army for the required two years, Mussolini resumed his teaching career, reaching in this field is very considerable success. Received proper qualification, he became Professor of the French College. This occupation brought him a livelihood, but his true purpose is young teacher was still regarded as policy.
Knowing that a newspaper article can be an equally effective weapon of the revolutionary struggle, like the rifle, he actively published in a number of leftist Newspapers, and eventually becomes editor of the socialist weekly, La Lima. In 1908, for the organization of a strike of agricultural workers, Mussolini was sentenced to three months in prison, but always gracious destiny left your pet at this time – in two weeks he was again at liberty.
Well-deserved success in the literary field
Truly a talented journalist using simple everyday language, it quickly gained popularity among ordinary Italians. Being able to pick your articles catchy and striking headlines, he touched upon the most burning topics concerning every citizen.
The personal life of the dictator
About the personal life of Mussolini, it is known that in 1914, while in Trento, he married IDA Dalser, who bore him a son. However, just a year later divorced her and entered into a second marriage with his former mistress, Rachele Guidi, in relations with which had for many years.
The new wife turned out to be prolific and sired two daughters and three sons. However, family circle's personal life Mussolini was never limited. Throughout the Mature years, had countless relationships, sometimes brief, sometimes lasting years.
A departure from the ideology of the socialists
However, at the beginning of the First world war unexpectedly came his rupture with the party. Actively advocating for the participation of neutral at the time of Italy in the hostilities on the side of France, he went against the General line of their former associates. After 1915, Italy finally entered the war on the Entente side, shunned by their former comrades, Mussolini appeared at the front. Awarded for bravery to the rank of a corporal, he was forced in 1917 to leave the service because of severe wounds received during one of the military operations.
After returning from the front, Mussolini continued his political activities, but already absolutely other opinion. In his articles and public speeches he declared that socialism has completely outlived its usefulness as a political doctrine. According to his statements, at this stage, only the strong, brutal and energetic personality able to serve the Renaissance of Italy.
The creation of the fascist party
23 Mar 1919 event occurred that has become really important not only in his life, but throughout the country's history – Benito Mussolini held the first meeting they established the party Fasci italiani combattimento – "the Italian Alliance against". The word "fasci" meaning – "the Union", was the reason that members of his organization, and then all who share the inherent ideology, were called Nazis.
The first serious success came to him in may 1921, when elections to the Chamber of deputies of the Italian Parliament, Mussolini and 35 of his closest associates received the mandates, then their organization was officially transformed into the National fascist party. Since that time, the word "fascism" began its grim March around the planet.
One of the manifestations of the policy of "strong hand" was the appearance on the streets of Italian cities units "blackshirt" – assault troops, composed of veterans of the last war. Their task was to restore order and force the opposition of various political opponents, tried to organize demonstrations, rallies and demonstrations. They became the prototype for future German attack aircraft, differing from them only by the brown color of their robes. The police, sensing the growing political influence of these groups, tried not to interfere in their actions.
By 1922, the number of supporters of the fascist party in Italy has increased so much that in November they managed to organize a mass March on Rome. Conscious of their power and fearing the outbreak of civil war, king Victor Emmanuel III was forced to accept Mussolini to appoint him Prime Minister. On the same day the new head of the government formed a Cabinet, in which, as you might guess, included the most prominent of his supporters.
The advent of fascists to power in Italy was marked by many crimes, secretly or openly committed on political grounds. Among them, the most public resonance was caused by the kidnapping and murder of a prominent socialist Giacomo Matteotti. In General, statistics show that over the period from 1927 to 1943, allegations of illegal actions, which bore a political character, leveled against 21 thousand.
At the pinnacle of power
After 1922 Benito Mussolini, a biography of whom by this time abounded with new and new appointments, managed to take personal control of virtually all aspects of public life. Suffice it to say that he succeeded, one after the other, to subjugate the seven ministries, including the major domestic and foreign Affairs, and defense.
By 1927, Benito Mussolini (Italy) created in the country now a police state, abolishing the constitutional limits to his arbitrariness. At the same time banned all other political parties and abolished parliamentary elections. Free will of the people was replaced by the Great fascist Council, which soon became the Supreme constitutional authority in the country.
The economic recovery of Italy in those years
Meanwhile, it should be noted that the creation in Italy of a hard totalitarian state was accompanied by a sharp economic recovery. In particular, for needs of agriculture during the reign of Benito Mussolini, a photo of which of those years are presented in the article, it was created 5 thousand farms. In the territory drained by his order the Pontine marshes built five new cities, the total area covered by the improvement amounted to 60 thousand hectares.
Widely known its programme to combat unemployment and create new jobs as a result of which thousands of families began to have a steady income. In General, during the reign of Benito Mussolini (Italy) managed to raise the country's economy on a previously unprecedented level, more than consolidated his position.
Imperial ambitions and their results
Dreaming of restoring the Roman Empire and considering himself the man of destiny, entrusted with this great mission, Mussolini led corresponding foreign policy, which resulted in the conquest of Albania and Ethiopia. However, this forced him to join the Second world war on the side of his former enemy of Hitler, whom he could not forgive the murder of his friend, Austrian dictator Engelbert Dollfuss.
Military actions were developed very negatively for the Italian army as a whole and personally for Benito Mussolini. Briefly outlining the existing situation, suffice it to say that his troops in a short time suffered a crushing defeat in Greece, Egypt, and Libya. The result is an arrogant and ambitious Duce was forced to ask for help from their allies.
The final collapse came after the defeat of German-Italian troops at Stalingrad and in North Africa. The result of the failure of the two major military operations was the loss of previously captured colonies, and the corps, who fought on the Eastern front. In the summer of 1943 to discredit the dictator was removed from all his posts and arrested.
Of dictators, puppets
But that Benito Mussolini and Hitler – two man who became a symbol of fascism and violence, – had not yet completed his cooperation. By order of the Fuehrer in September 1943, the Duce was liberated by a detachment of paratroopers under the command of Otto Skorzeny. After that, he headed the Pro-German puppet government in Northern Italy, created in an alternative defected to the anti-fascist forces of king Victor Emmanuel III.
And although the history of Benito Mussolini at the time was already coming to its sad end, he managed to create in their territory of the Italian socialist Republic, not received, however, recognition at the international level, and in everything dependent from the Germans. But the days of the once-omnipotent dictator were numbered.
In April 1945 there was the very tragedy with the mention of which started this article. Trying to take refuge in neutral Switzerland and crossing the valley Valtellina, Musollini, his mistress was an Italian aristocrat, Clara Petacci, and about a hundred Germans were in the hands of the guerrillas. The former dictator was identified the next day with his girlfriend shot on the outskirts of the village Mezzegra.
Their dead bodies transported to Milan and hung by the legs at a gas station at Loreto square. That day next to them in the fresh April wind swayed the remains of six other Nazi hierarchs. Benito Mussolini, whose death was the natural step of many years of activity aimed at the suppression of civil liberties in the country, by the time of national idol became the object of universal hatred. Maybe that's why the face of the defeated Duce was disfigured beyond recognition.
29 APR 2012 on the wall in the village Mezzegra, near which ended his life, there was a plaque. It depicts Clara Petacci and Benito Mussolini. Books, movies, historical works, and most importantly time did the trick, and with all its odious dictator in the minds of men has become just one of the pages of their history, to which, as to any other, the true citizens are treated with respect.