Words differ not only the lexical value. All many of them are divided into groups – parts of speech. This gradation is based on the grammatical meaning of the words and their special characteristics – morphological.
Morphology section of the Russian language
Parts of speech engaged in a branch of science called morphology. Every word has its inherent characteristics: overall meaning, grammar, also morphological and syntactic characteristics. The first indicates the same value of specific parts of speech. For example, the marking of subject nouns, its characteristic adjectives, verbs – action, and participles is a sign for action.
Syntactic signs is the role of a particular part of speech in a sentence. For example, verbs usually are the predicate, at least – subject. The nouns in the sentence can be add-ons, circumstances, subject, and sometimes the predicate.
What are the morphological characteristics of the
A much more extensive group of morphological features, permanent and non-permanent. The first is characterized by the word as a particular part of speech. For example, the verb always determines the conjugation, the form of transitivity. Irregular morphological features indicate that part of speech has the ability to change. For example, the noun changes according to case and number – this will be a non-permanent signs. But the adverb and the gerund, are immutable parts of speech, so they only need to specify the fixed characteristics. Same thing for service parts of speech and interjections.
Before analyzing the morphological characteristics of parts of speech, it should be noted that it is necessary to distinguish between the word and its form. Words differ in lexical meaning, and when they change their formed shape. For example, the word "land" has the lexical meaning "fenced part of the area", and its forms will change for this case: plot, plot, plot, plot.
Constant indicating the morphological characteristics of the noun, talking about a household or private, animate or inanimate, is also determined by the type of its declension and gender.
Common nouns denote a set of any items, without singling out their individual traits. For example, the word “river” we denote all the rivers: large and small, North and South, affluent and not. But if we specified a specific river, one of a kind, for example, Neva – noun own.
Objects of nature belong to the animate noun, the other inanimate. This is a permanent morphological features of the noun. The dog (who?) – animate
Here is an example. Genitive: (?) cats
There are the following births: masculine, feminine and neuter. To identify these morphological features of a noun, you must substitute the word pronouns my – my – my, respectively.
Declension of nouns are presented in the table:
Shaving, scraping, be based (refer to the first conjugation)
Verb: nepostroennye signs
Irregular morphological features of the verb, its number, tense, gender, age and face. These categories are largely determined by others. For example, the time change verbs in the indicative mood. Continuous verbs have only three tenses.
Verbs of the Russian language three forms of mood: indicative (I bake, I bake, I bake), commanding (pitches) and conditional (baked).
Change the verbs and genders: he swam she swam it swam. This category is characteristic of past tense verbs.
The verb's face indicates who the action is performed: by the speaker himself (I clean), the person you are talking to (you clean) or the subject / face of the conversation (it cleans).
Like pronouns, you first need to watch the discharge and, therefore, it to specify the other characteristics.
Permanent morphological signs of the sacrament – a view, transitivity, repayment, collateral and time.
In the same way as verbs, are participles perfective and imperfective aspect: working (what to do? to work) – the continuous
If the sacrament is derived from transitional or reflexive verb, the same characteristics will remain with him. For example, from the transition of the verb “to lock” is formed of the sacrament “locking” (lock) it also has this category. From the reflexive verb “to lock” is formed of the sacrament “lockable”, respectively, also return.
The sacrament can be valid (the symptom is performed by the subject: thinking – is the one who thinks) and passive (the subject is experiencing the action of the sign, written in a book is a book that someone's written).
Two forms of time can distinguish from participles: the present (playing) and past (played).
Irregular morphological signs of the sacrament are similar to the adjective: gender, number, case, form (short or full).
Gerund – an immutable part of speech, so he determined solely by the fixed characteristics:
- . Perfect (that making? – reading) and imperfect (doing what? – reading).
- Transitivity. Transmitted from the verb: deciding (to decide - the transitive verb); going (go - intransitive verb).
- Repayment. Raspredelitel – reflexive gerund
In the same way as the gerund, the adverb no forms. Thus, it only indicates a constant morphological features: category by value, and if the speech quality, i.e. derived from the name of an adjective to indicate degree of comparison.
For example, the word “fun” is derived from the adjective happy, so the formation of degrees of comparison: a fun (positive)