Expression in music of the Russian national idea was the main purpose of Balakirev's circle, formed in St. Petersburg in 1850-60-ies, later dubbed the "Mighty handful", whose composition is virtually unchanged. Name it "New Russian music school" (another name) gave the mastermind – the famous critic Vladimir Stasov (1824-1906).
How did this creative collaboration, bringing together five of the great Russian composer M. A. Balakirev, and C. A. Cui, M. P. Mussorgsky, A. P. Borodin and N. Rimsky-Korsakova? It is necessary to add that at some period the "Mighty handful" part had a more advanced. It included less known to the General public, especially the modern composers A. C. Gussakovskii, H. H. and N. Lodyzhensky. V. Shcherbachev. They came later, from Balakirev's circle and in General moved away from composing. Therefore, it is assumed that members of the "New school" was only five composers, in France they were called the "Group of five" or "Five". Themselves core members of the group considered themselves the heirs of the great Russian composers M. I. Glinka and A. S. Dargomyzhsky.
The adherents of the "Russian idea"
The time in Russia is connected with the fermentation of minds, which is not spared intellectuals. Flashing riots forced the progressive-minded artists and composers appeal to the people subject to study Russian folk music and spirituals. They were United by the idea realization of people's aesthetic principles in music. Declared it the head of the mighty handful of M. A. Balakirev (1837-1910) and V. V. Stasov, developed a common ideological-aesthetic positions of the circle. They were like-minded and shared the views of famous writers-Democrats of the 60-ies. It was the patriots who dearly love Russia, devoted to "the Russian idea".
The composer, who shared their views and consistently implementing them in life were modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (1839-1881). Most remote from the rest of the participants were Cesar Antonovich Cui (1835-1918), although he came to the group first. These five composers were United not only regular meetings and conversations – they are systematically gathered, studied and systematized Russian folk music with the aim of making of national identity in their works. It is clear that the stories of these composers of Russia was taken from Russian history. And innovation they were spread to form pieces of music and harmony and rhythm.
Brilliant composers, talented publicists
They were few, but they had a huge impact not only in Russia but in the whole culture. Therefore, it is clear the name given to them V. V. Stasov, "the Mighty handful". The composition of the free Commonwealth were United by the most talented composers of the time, except for Tchaikovsky, with whom relations have of the Five was close, but complicated. Their views of these composers of Russia promoted in the media. So, from 1864, was systematically published Cui, defending their views and tendencies, which largely coincided with the position of Balakirev's circle. As many periodicals were and Borodin. And Rimsky-Korsakov were regularly reported their positions and principles, basic of which were nationality and the nationality of music. Therefore, the theme of their work was connected only with Russia, its historical past, ancient beliefs, folk tales and legends.
"Mighty handful", which has already loudly declared itself, has created a Free school of music (1862), which became a centre of not only educational activities but also cultural life of the capital. There was going to progressives of that time – writers and artists, sculptors and scientists, whose views were close to the principles of the composers. The musicians are also represented, and discussed their new works.
Erudite, versatile, gifted, talented
The most striking and radical "cuckoldom" was modest Petrovich Mussorgsky. For the sake of music, he left the service in the life guards Preobrazhensky regiment. It was erudite and brilliantly educated man, who spoke fluent in several European languages and perfectly played on the piano. In addition, modest Petrovich possessed a wonderful baritone. He was the most consistent supporter of the tenets of the "Mighty handful", the disintegration which was going through a very painful and considered it a betrayal of the "Russian idea". His great Opera "Boris Godunov", "Khovanshchina", "Sorochinskaya fair" is bringing the composer among the greatest musicians of Russia.
In the last years of his life, his innovative works were rejected not only by academic circles but also close friends – other members of the "Mighty handful". The composer drank his last and only lifetime portrait was done by I. Repin shortly before his death, which overtook Mussorgsky in the military hospital of St. Petersburg.
Geniuses do not get along long
Broke up the "Mighty handful" for several reasons. So, I pulled away Balakirev, who was going through a deep spiritual crisis, joined the Academy Rimsky-Korsakov that Mussorgsky and Balakirev considered a defector, although thanks to him the idea of "cuccato" are gone, and embodied in the works of composers of the members of the belaiev circle. Borodin has, besides music, was still and chemistry. The creativity of the "Mighty handful" does not just leave deep mark in Russian music, it has radically changed. There is a national specificity, scope, and nationality (in the works was a lot of people's scenes). Absolutely all the representatives of this musical Association, soldered the General idea was people bright and talented. Their work enriched the Treasury of not only Russian, but also world music.