Nowadays, only the lazy or the one who does not have access to the Internet does not know about the methods of early development. Indeed, in the absence of the World Wide Web, young mothers simply had nowhere to draw the necessary information to deal with children. There were no special development centers in the number in which they exist now. A small percentage of kindergartens practiced the use of various techniques, but they were not popularized.
In this article we will talk about what is the method of early development, how many of them exist and what they are. So, let's begin…
What is the method of early development?
Human abilities are truly enormous. The main thing is to give them the opportunity to develop. It is easy to notice the fact that a small child quickly learns new knowledge and skills. That's because there is a great intellectual potential in him from birth. The task of parents and teachers is its further development and formation.
Methods of early development of children is not a new phenomenon in pedagogy, but before the advent of the 21st century it was considered rather controversial. In the book of the Japanese Masaru Ibuki “After three is already late” an explanatory explanation is given quite reasonably why one should deal with children from birth. He writes that the foundations of the child’s personality are laid precisely in the first three years of life. And it is important not to miss this time.
The main point of all methods is that in early childhood, when intensive brain growth occurs, classes with children are most effective. To teach something a seven-year-old will be much more difficult than a three-year-old baby.
Thus, the method of early development is an algorithm of actions aimed at solving specific problems with the help of certain techniques (stimulation of knowledge through the excitation of a child’s interest, the development of creativity and other necessary skills, character education, etc.). Such methods do not set a goal to teach a child to read or write in three years - they work on the development of a comprehensively developed personality.
What techniques exist?
Some of the techniques are really quite radical, but there are also liberal ones. Most of them are aimed at intellectual and physical development, some - exclusively at the development of mental abilities. There are those who are responsible for the formation of the creative potential of the child, his aesthetic development, early learning of foreign languages. Let's get acquainted with the most popular of the existing.
- Methodology G. Doman (holistic system).
- Methodology M. Montessori (complete system).
- Waldorf technique (holistic system).
- Games V. Voskobovicha (development of intelligence).
- Zaitsev method (development of intelligence).
- Methodology V. Kurchevsky (aesthetic development - drawing).
- Methodology S. Suzuki (aesthetic development - music).
- Kitaygorodskaya technique (foreign languages).
Methods of early development of children are quite diverse in their tasks and content. They can also be aimed at working with children of different age categories. For example, the educational method “Good Fairy Tales” is popular among preschoolers and primary school teachers. And lessons on the method of Makato Shichida can be practiced from birth.
Now let's take a closer look at the most popular ways of early development of children.
Glenn Doman technique
The physiotherapist began his work in the 40s of the 20th century. Initially, he developed a methodology for teaching children with severe lesions of the nervous system, and when he saw astounding results, he began to apply it for teaching healthy children.
The essence of the method of early development of children up to a year and older consists in the awakening of physical activity, which is closely connected with the child’s intelligence and abilities. The main method is learning by cards (reading, mathematics, encyclopedic knowledge). In his methodology there are ten sections (for example, biology, music), each of them has twelve levels (from simple to complex).
The method of early development of Doman does not contain elements of the game, entertainment, does not teach to analyze the information obtained. Undoubtedly, this is a big minus. But it contributes to the physical development and accumulation of a large amount of knowledge.
The technique of Maria Montessori
Montessori pedagogy (method of early development) is based on the principle that the child is initially a self-sufficient person and is free to independently choose educational material, determine the duration of the lesson, its intensity.
Much attention is paid to sensory, which contributes to the development of speech and thinking. The teacher or parent acts as an assistant or conductor who does not interfere with the learning process. Its task is to create an accessible environment, ensure the availability of educational material, etc. The child’s independence is the main principle of the Montessori system.
The method of early development mentioned above is especially popular nowadays, although it was created in the early 20th century.
Makato Shichida technique
The method of early development, developed by the Japanese Shichida, in Russia is only gaining its popularity.
The Shichida method focuses on the development of the legal hemisphere of the brain and the consolidation of its connection with the left. This connection is lost over time, so it is important to engage with the child from birth.
In his work, the doctor uses flash cards (for various areas of knowledge), games for the development and improvement of memory, intuition, imagination. For older children, creative educational activities (games with smells, singing) are used. The whole lesson in Shichida is divided into blocks (each for 5-7 minutes), so the child does not get tired, does not lose concentration and activity. His method also focuses on social skills and personal development.
In our country, there are also many talented teachers, whose developments are actively used by our contemporaries:
- Method Nikitin (physical development and intellectual games).
- Methodology of Nikolay Zaitsev (learning to read with the help of special cubes with syllables).
- Voskobovich method (game training of children aimed at the development of memory, imagination, speech, creativity).
- The technique of Maria Gmoshinskaya (psycho-emotional development of children through drawing).
How to deal with a child can only decide the parent. Many make a choice in favor of any method of early development (from 3 years including) and do not regret it.