Courage is the quality that turns ordinary people into heroes, both during armed conflict and in peacetime. In the Middle ages were invented by the custom of awarding the most distinguished warrior medal or the medal pinned to clothing or worn on the ribbon or chain around the neck. They had to testify about the accomplished deed and to distinguish the hero from the crowd. Over time, your rewards appeared in many countries of the world. They were in the Soviet Union. One of the most famous was the medal "For courage". USSR during the years of the second world war it awarded more than 4 million people.
Medal For bravery silver in color and have a round shape (diameter – 3.7 cm). They have a convex rim on both sides. On the upper part of the obverse depicts 3 of an airplane. Under them inscription in 2 lines "For courage". Part of her letter covered with red enamel. Beneath this inscription is a convex image of a stylized T-35, which in 1938 was a symbol of military power of the Soviet Union. Below these is covered with red enamel inscription "USSR".
With regard to the design of the reverse, it is very simple, it is only marked with a number.
Bar with medal "For courage" was a 5-carbon form. It is covered in gray silk moire ribbon. It the edges have two longitudinal blue stripes. The width of the tape itself is 2.4 cm strips — 2 mm. it Should be noted that originally the block was a 4-carbon, covered with a red ribbon, but after such a design is refused.
History before the second world war
The establishment of the medal "For courage" took place in 1938. According to the relevant Decree of the Presidium of the USSR it was intended to reward soldiers ON, Navy, border and internal troops and other citizens of the Soviet Union, who showed personal courage and bravery in defending the homeland and in the line of duty. The medal "For courage" (world war II was marked by many deeds for which she was presented) was established almost simultaneously with the medal "For military merit". The last was given not only military, but also civilian populations. Both of these awards were the first in the Soviet Union, except jubilee medal established on the 20th anniversary of the red army. Thus, it was extremely honorable.
Some sources indicate that the first awarded by a medal "For courage" — F. Grigoriev and N. Gulyaev, and they got her for detention of a group of enemy saboteurs on the shore of lake Khasan. However, this is not entirely true. It is known that 3 days before the decree in which it was reported the awarding of the guards, medals were awarded to 62 soldiers. One of them – Valery Abramkin, starley F. Alekseev, Lieutenant GB B. Almaev, the political leader And Baimuldin, Lieutenant G. Borbotko etc.
In addition, prior to the invasion of the Nazis on the territory of the Soviet Union, for deeds committed in the protection of the state borders of the USSR and in the days of the so-called Finnish war, she was awarded about 26 thousand Soviet soldiers.
During world war II and in peacetime
Since the beginning of the invasion of the Nazis and in August 1945, medal "For courage" received more than 4 000 000 people, mostly soldiers, Junior officers and seamen and warrant officers of the Navy. Some soldiers were even awarded 4, 5 and 6 times this reward. The medal “For courage” was particularly respected among the soldiers, as it was said only those who showed personal bravery in battle, and not for participation in a particular battle, the defense or the liberation of the city, etc. basically handed it over to privates, sergeants and officers at the Junior level.
In the postwar period the medal was awarded much less frequently. However, in 1956 she was awarded numerous group of servicemen who distinguished themselves during operations to suppress "counter-revolutionary rebellion" in Hungary.
Another mass awarding of medals "For courage" was held in the period of hostilities during the events occurring in Afghanistan in the first half of the 80-ies. Then it has been awarded to thousands of soldiers and officers.
Medal "For courage" (Patriotic war was the hardest of all wars in world history, and the awarding of this medal at the time it acquired the widest character) after the Victory was in many families of the Soviet people. Among the recipients were quite young heroes. So, the youngest was awarded a 6-year-old son of the regiment Sergei Aleshkov, who saved his commander. One more soldier-teenager — 15-year-old Athanasius Shkuratov by the end of the war had already 2 such awards. The first one he received during the fighting for the capture of the city of Surozh, when taken to the field hospital the wounded officer, and the second was presented to him for bravery in Karelia, during the operation on the Mannerheim line.
Medal "For courage" (1945, not last year when it was awarded) were awarded also to foreign citizens. In particular, in may 1964, for saving the life of a Soviet officer it was awarded the Danes Viggo and Lilian Lindum. In addition, on July 8, 1964, this high award was awarded to a citizen of Czechoslovakia by A. Haller, who in the last days of the war, held the head of the Soviet watch of the shortest path to Prague.
Few people know that about the medals "For bravery" on 7 July 1941 it was decided to return it to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet in the case of the death of the award. However, 2 years later it was revised, and the families of the heroes could leave them on the memory of his deceased son, brother, father.
Another interesting fact is associated with the awarding of these medals to soldiers of the notorious battalions. As you know, at the time of serve their sentences last deprived a military rank and awards. However, in the case of committing the deeds and acts of heroism many of them received the medal "For courage". By the way this is mentioned in one of the songs of Vladimir Vysotsky, where the poet, referring to the fighter of a penal battalion, said that if he "did not catch it in the chest lead" will get this award.
Other Soviet medal 1941-1945
After the outbreak of the second world war, the leadership of the Union was the task of all the forces to maintain the morale of soldiers and officers who have made unparalleled feats at the fronts, fighting in difficult conditions. To this end, it has established a new award. Among them – the medal for the defence of Leningrad, Sevastopol, Odessa and Stalingrad (1942). Moreover, by early 1943, increased the role of the guerrillas in the fight against the enemy. In this regard, it was decided to establish an award for this category of defenders of the Motherland. Since the beginning of February 1943 began to use the medal "Partisan of the Patriotic war" 1st and 2nd degrees.
The success of the Soviet Navy has made necessary the establishment of special awards for participants of sea battles. They were the medals of Ushakov and Nakhimov. They appeared in 1944. By the way, the first of which is next highest after the already known awards For bravery. At about this time was established the medal for the defense of the Caucasus, Moscow and the Soviet Arctic.
May 9, 1945 were some of the last medals of the WWII period. They were the medal "For victory over Germany" and "For taking of Berlin".
A month later, a special decree was established 6 awards. They were the medal for the capture of Budapest, Vienna, Belgrade, Warsaw and Prague, which were said participants in the operations for the liberation of European capitals. And finally, the last award of the Second world war was established by decree published in late September 1945. Medal "For victory over Japan" was awarded to 1 800 000 soldiers and officers who took part in the battles that led to the signing of the capitulation of the Imperial army.
Some of the most famous of the order of WWII
The beginning of the great Patriotic war in the Soviet Union already had established several such awards. The first of these was the order of the red banner. It was founded in 1924 and for many years he was the only award of the country. Later came the order of the red banner of Labour, Lenin and the “badge of honor”.
After the war for a long time, it was not until the establishment of the new awards. However, in 1942, by decree of may 20, the most distinguished soldiers were awarded the order of the Patriotic war. This award was one of the first in the USSR with a degree. To quickly mark the feats of soldiers, the right to award order of the Patriotic war I and II degree was handed over directly to the command. Thus was established a clear criteria which could be awarded this award. For example, the order of the Patriotic war first class could be awarded to a gunner, personally destroyed one heavy or two light tanks (armored vehicles). Just got one more than 9 000 000 people.
In 1942 was established as the order of Kutuzov, Ushakov and Alexander Nevsky. All three awards were the commanders of military divisions and is awarded to those who displayed leadership talent. A year later, the award system of the USSR appeared also, the order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, Fame and “Victory”. The last two deserve special mention.
The highest military award of the USSR
The order of Victory was established on 8 November 1943. This is the highest military award of the USSR, the decision on which creation was accepted after a radical change in world war II. Just got it 20 people, including Zhukov, Vasilevsky and Stalin.
At the end of the war, it also received some foreign military leaders. In particular, the order “Victory” was awarded a Dwight D. Eisenhower and Bernard low Montgomery. In addition, the award was presented by the Romanian monarch Mihai First.
The Order Of Glory
If the previous award was designed to celebrate the achievements of the military leaders whose actions led to the fracture in the course of the war, the star with the image of the Kremlin was established for the average composition of the AC. It was awarded 1 000 000 troops. Among the actions that were considered worthy reason for awarding the order of Glory, stated:
- the task of the tanker, in a burning car
- the destruction sniper 10-50 enemy soldiers
- the capture of the enemy officer
- rescue commander
- the destruction of the enemy warehouse.
Medal "For bravery on fire"
Heroism in terms of peaceful everyday life, no less worthy of reward than feats on the battlefield. Given this fact, in 1957, the USSR established the medal "For courage on a fire". It was intended to award the employees of fire protection, members of the DPD, military personnel and other civilians who have taken actions to prevent the spread of fire, explosion or danger to human life.
Description of the medal "For courage in the fire"
This award was originally made of silver and later of Nickel-silver. The medal has a round shape. Diameter is 3.2 cm On the obverse in the upper part there is the inscription "For bravery on fire", and under it is engraved 5-pointed star. In the centre crossed by a sliding key and a fire ax. Below are 2 branches of Laurel and oak, there is an image of the hammer and sickle.
The design of the reverse is also quite interesting. It depicts the figure of a firefighter in appropriate gear with the rescued baby in her arms. In the background is a burning house. The lower part of the reverse is decorated with a Laurel sprig.
All shapes, objects and inscriptions on the medal "For bravery on fire" is convex. Its front and reverse side along the circumference edge of the convex side.
The coin is pentagonal clasp, covered crepe moire silk ribbon. Its width is 2.4 cm On its edges there are blue stripes with a width of 3 mm. They are bordered by white stripes, each of which has a width of 1 mm.
The history of the award "For bravery on fire"
The initiator of the medals in 1957 was Klim Voroshilov. However, the decrees of her assignment were published very rarely, and, according to statistics, every year she was given about 100 firefighters and civilians. First its got the Boar and V. I. Sobolev. There were also cases when the firefighter was twice awarded this medal. Moreover, S. Derevyanko she was awarded three times. The last time the medal "For courage on a fire" (USSR) was produced in the beginning of March 1991. Then, on the Russian equivalent, which lasted until 1994. At this point in the award system of the Russian Federation this award no. Instead, there is a medal "For rescue perishing". At the same time established departmental awards of the Ministry of interior and EMERCOM of Russia with the same name.
Until 1947 in the USSR there was a system of cash payments to encourage awarded orders and medals. However, it was declared invalid by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. This decision was also abolished privileges for the medal "For courage" and other awards of the USSR. In subsequent years, they were not restored.
At the moment the veterans who have the medal "For courage" (1941-1945, the years when it was awarded the greatest number of such awards), are deprived of any privileges associated with this circumstance. Different is the case in respect of servicemen. After the service they are entitled to an additional cash payment in the amount of one salary.
As for what benefits rely awarded the medal "For courage on a fire", it is considered that a person commits such deeds at the behest of the heart, and not for cash payments and discounts on housing and communal services.
Now you know how to look the medal "For courage". For that awarded it, you also know, so now you'll certainly be with great respect to those who have on the chest is a sign of recognition.