Recently, a warm floor has become an excellent alternative to centralized heating. Owners of private houses also gradually refuse heating using radiators and install heating elements directly in the floors. In such cases, use two types of systems - with a water circuit and with the use of electricity.
The second option today is particularly popular, as it is much more economical and easier to install. For the arrangement of such heating special mats (heating) are used. Their installation does not require obtaining permission and high financial costs. Moreover, if you choose the right quality heating device and properly install it, you will not need to use additional heat sources. The system is able to perform the function of the main heating, and, as practice shows, it completely copes with its task.
Heating mats (warm floor) consist of copper or steel electrical wires, which are the main source of heat, and plastic or fiberglass base (in the form of a grid). The heating cable is neatly laid by a snake along the entire length of the base. The device goes on sale in the form of a roll, the maximum width of which is 0.5 meters. The length of the mat is chosen depending on the dimensions of the room, but it can not be more than 25 meters.
Additionally, the heating system is equipped with a heat sensor, special couplings and a temperature controller. The thickness of the heating wire is less than 1 cm, so the arrangement of such heating practically does not affect the height of the room.
Heating mats for the floor, depending on the type of heating cable, are divided into:
• single core systems;
• two-core devices.
The first type differs in that when connecting to a temperature controller, it is necessary to use two ends of the heating cable. Because of this feature, the installation of the system must be completed in the same place where it was started. If this is not taken into account, the master will have to stretch the cold wire from the end of the heating element to the connection point.
Two-core devices are equipped with one wire that must be connected to the power supply. At the end of the mat, a special coupling is installed, so it is not necessary to pull the cable to the connection point, which greatly simplifies and speeds up the entire installation process.
Scope of application
Mats, the heating elements of which are connected at both ends, are intended for heating non-residential buildings. They are used for heating warehouse and industrial premises. Also, this system is suitable for arranging outdoor heating (parking spaces, steps, etc.) and to prevent icing of sports fields.
Twin-core mats are ideal for home use. The heating elements are laid during the filling of the floor screed and are covered with any finishing material from above. Installation of such systems can be done in all rooms, as they do not pose any danger and do not harm the human body.
The main advantages of heating mats
There are several undeniable advantages that endow the heating mat. Reviews of consumers who have installed this device in their home, speak about the following facts:
1. In comparison with water counterparts for floor heating, electrical systems are much more economical. And this is despite the fact that electricity is an order of magnitude more expensive than water. The low cost of operating electrical devices is due to the fact that a special heating cable consumes the minimum amount of energy. In addition, the installation of mats is much easier and less expensive.
2. High-quality devices have a very long service life. Depending on the conditions and frequency of operation, they are able to serve more than 15 years uninterruptedly. During this period they pay for their own cost several times.
3. Before installing the mats do not need to take permission from housing companies and heating systems. This circumstance attracts many apartment owners, as the installation of a water circuit in high-rise buildings is considered illegal.
The main disadvantages of heating mats are:
• presence of electromagnetic radiation;
• relative complexity of installation.
For inexperienced masters, heating mats (warm floors) cause difficulties with connection, since often the cold ends of the cable have a small length, and for connection to the power regulator they have to be increased. Nevertheless, for a person who is at least a little versed in electrics, this fact will not become a problem.
Speaking of the electromagnetic background, it should be noted that this phenomenon occurs only in cheap mats. The radiation of high-quality devices does not exceed the established norms.
What finish can be used
Most often fit the heating mats under the tile. This finish perfectly conducts heat and heats up quickly. It does not take long to think about the choice of optimal power, as tile and porcelain can be laid over any mats.
If it is planned to use laminate or linoleum as a topcoat, then when choosing mats, one should take into account the low thermal conductivity of such a lining. The installation of a special substrate further underestimates this indicator, therefore, only special types of panels (which can be combined with heating mats) need to be laid over warm floors.
The heating device should also be selected depending on the type of coating, as the manufacturer manufactures products for wood cladding that are oriented specifically for these purposes.
How to choose a cable warm floor
The main criteria by which mats (heating) are selected are:
• cable power;
• floor space;
• type of coverage.
If the underfloor heating system acts as additional heating, the power of the mats may be minimal. The use of such devices will prevent a strong increase in energy costs. For arranging the main heat source, you should choose mats with increased cable capacity. Depending on what area will cover the mat, determine the desired length of the roll. In the final footage does not include the area of areas where there will be furniture.
The rest of the choice depends on the preferences of the buyer. Below we consider the names and a brief description of the manufacturers of cable floors, which are most often found on the market.
Devi heating mat belongs to the group of high-quality floor heating systems. In the markets and in hardware stores you can see the devices of this company with a capacity of 137 W and 150 W per square meter. The main purpose of such mats is laying under ceramic tiles. With these devices, you can heat from 0.5 to 12 square meters of floor. The average market value of such a system is 6000-12000 rubles (depending on the size of the mat).
For use in conjunction with laminated panels, this manufacturer offers a separate series of systems - Devidry. It is presented in the form of small rugs ranging in size from 1 to 5 square meters. The special structure of the mat allows laying the laminate without a substrate, due to which the coating heats up better. The installation of such heating (medium size) will cost the buyer about 10,000 rubles.
Old residents of the domestic market can rightly be called heating mats “Thermolux”. They are produced by domestic manufacturers and for many years have not lost their popularity.All products of this manufacturer is divided into 3 series:
1. MINI - as a heating element used single-core 3 mm cable, which is fixed in a mesh of fiberglass. Mats can cover an area from 0.65 to 15.3 square meters. The fixed power of this series is 140 watts per square meter. The average cost of devices in this series is 6000 rubles.
2. TROPIX - this line uses a two-wire 3 mm cable. The difference with the first group is in the presence of two power options - 140 and 200 W per square meter. The minimum laying area is 1 m², and the maximum is 13 m². This option costs customers about 9000 rubles.
3. Profimat - a two-core heating element with a thickness of 3.5 mm is installed in this series. In the composition of the cable there is alumolavsan, which prevents the appearance of an electromagnetic field. Mats, designed for laying under the tile, have a power of 140 W, and under the laminate and parquet - 120 W per square meter. The price of this line starts from 9500 rubles.
The Electrolux heating mat is made by a long-known Swedish manufacturer. Its products have been on the domestic market for many years and show themselves well in use. The main purpose of the heating mats of this company is mounting under tiles and porcelain stoneware.
This product is also divided into two series:
• EASY FIX MAT.
• MULTI SIZE MAT.
The first option is completed with a two-core heater with triple Teflon insulation. The base of the mat is made of textile material, which does not lose its properties during use. The devices are designed for laying on the area from 0.5 to 12 meters. Cable power - 150 watts per square meter. Buying such a mat costs about 9000 rubles (at maximum sizes).
The heating systems of this company are manufactured by a French company, which offers the buyer inexpensive products of good quality. The device uses a two-core cable with a thickness of 3.5 mm. The laying area can vary from 1 to 13.5 square meters. The rated power of the device is 150 and 200 W per square meter. Equation heating mat can be used with tiles, laminated panels, linoleum and carpet. In the domestic market, one square meter of such a mat (200 W) costs about 3,500 rubles.