Recently, heated floor has become an excellent alternative to centralized heating. Owners of private houses also gradually refuse heating using radiators and install heating elements directly in the floors. In such cases, two types of systems are used - with a water circuit and using electricity.
The second option today is very popular, as it is much more economical and easier to install. To arrange this heating, special mats (heating) are used. Their installation does not require obtaining permission and large financial costs. Moreover, if you select the right heating device and perform a quality installation, it will not be necessary to use additional heat sources. The system is able to perform the function of basic heating, and, as practice shows, it completely copes with its task.
Heating mats (warm floor) consist of copper or steel electrical wires, which are the main source of heat, and plastic or fiberglass base (in the form of a grid). The heating cable is neatly laid with a snake over the entire length of the base. The device goes on sale in the form of a roll, the maximum width of which is 0.5 meters. The length of the mat is selected depending on the size of the room, but it can not be more than 25 meters.
In addition, the heating system is equipped with a thermal sensor, special couplings and a temperature regulator. The thickness of the heating wire is less than 1 cm, so the arrangement of such heating practically does not affect the height of the room.
Heating mats for the floor, depending on the type of heating cable, are divided into:
• Single-core systems;
• two-wire devices.
The first variant differs in that when connecting to a temperature regulator it is necessary to use the two ends of the heating cable. Because of this feature, the installation of the system must be completed in the same place where it was started. If this is not taken into account, the master will have to stretch the cold wire from the end of the heating element to the connection point.
Two-wire devices are equipped with one wire, which must be connected to the power supply. At the end of the mat, a special coupling is installed, so you do not need to pull the cable to the connection point, which greatly facilitates and speeds up the entire installation process.
Scope of application
Mats, the heating elements of which are connected at both ends, are designed for heating non-residential buildings. They are used for heating warehouse and industrial premises. Also, this system is suitable for the arrangement of street heating (parking spaces, steps, etc.) and to prevent icing of sports grounds.
For home use, two-core mats are ideal. Heating elements are laid during the pouring of the floor screed and from the top are covered with any finishing material. Installation of such systems can be carried out in all rooms, since they do not pose any danger and do not harm the human body.
Main advantages of heating mats
There are several undeniable advantages that the heating mat is endowed with. Comments from consumers who installed this device in their home, say the following facts:
1. In comparison with water analogs for heating floors, electrical systems are much more economical. And this is despite the fact that electricity costs an order of magnitude more than water. Low costs for the operation of electrical devices are explained by the fact that a special heating cable consumes a minimum amount of energy resources. In addition, the installation of mats is much easier and less expensive.
2. Quality devices have a very long service life. Depending on the conditions and frequency of operation, they are able to function without interruption for more than 15 years. During this period, they repay their own value several times.
3. Before installing mats, you do not need to take a permit in the housing companies and the heating network. This circumstance attracts many apartment owners, since installation of a water circuit in multi-storey buildings is considered illegal.
The main disadvantages of heating mats are:
• presence of electromagnetic radiation;
• Relative complexity of installation.
For inexperienced masters, heating mats (warm floor) cause difficulties with the connection, since often the cold ends of the cable are short, and they have to be increased to connect to the power regulator. Nevertheless, for a man who understands at least a bit of the electrician, this circumstance will not be a problem.
Speaking about the electromagnetic background, it should be noted that this phenomenon occurs only in cheap mats. Radiation of high-quality devices does not exceed the established norms.
What finish coat can I use?
Most often, heating mats are placed under the tile. This finish perfectly conducts heat and quickly heats up. It does not take long to think about choosing the optimal power, as tiles and porcelain stoneware can be stacked on top of any mats.
If you plan to use a laminate or linoleum as a finishing coat, then during the selection of mats, it is necessary to take into account the low thermal conductivity of such a cladding. The installation of a special substrate further underestimates this figure, so only special types of panels (which can be combined with heating mats) should be laid on top of warm floors.
The heating device should also be selected depending on the type of coating, as for the wooden lining the manufacturer produces products that are targeted specifically for these purposes.
How to choose a cable warm floor
The main criteria for choosing mats (heating) are:
• power cable;
• the area of the room;
• type of coverage.
If the underfloor heating system acts as additional heating, the thickness of the mats can be minimal. The use of such devices will prevent a strong increase in electricity costs. To equip the main heat source, you should choose mats with increased cable power. Depending on what area will cover the mat, determine the desired length of the roll. The total footage does not include the area of the plots where the furniture will stand.
Otherwise, the choice depends on the preferences of the buyer. Below we will consider the names and brief characteristics of cable floor manufacturers, which are most often found on the market.
The heating mat Devi belongs to the group of high-quality floor heating systems. In the markets and in construction stores, you can see the devices of this company with a power of 137 W and 150 W per square meter. The main purpose of these mats is laying under ceramic tiles. With the help of these devices can be heated from 0.5 to 12 square meters of floor. The average market value of such a system is 6,000-12,000 rubles (depending on the size of the mat).
For use in conjunction with laminated panels, this manufacturer offers a separate series of systems - Devidry. It is presented in the form of small rugs in the size from 1 to 5 square meters. The special structure of the mat allows the laying of the laminate without a substrate, due to which the coating is better heated. Installation of such heating (medium size) will cost the buyer about 10,000 rubles.
Old-timers of the domestic market can rightfully be called heating mats "Teplolux." They are produced by a domestic manufacturer and have not lost popularity for many years.All products of this manufacturer are divided into 3 series:
1. MINI - as a heating element a single-core 3 mm cable is used which is fixed in a fiberglass mesh. Mats can cover an area from 0.65 to 15.3 square meters. The fixed power of this series is 140 W per square meter. The average cost of devices in this series is 6,000 rubles.
2. TROPIX - this line uses a two-core 3 mm cable. The difference with the first group is the availability of two options for power - 140 and 200 watts per square meter. The minimum laying area is 1 m², and the maximum is 13 m². This option costs the buyers about 9000 rubles.
3. Profimat - this series has a two-core heating element, 3.5 mm thick. As part of the cable there is an aluminosan, which prevents the appearance of an electromagnetic field. The mats intended for laying under the tile have a power of 140 W, and for the laminate and parquet - 120 W per square meter. The price of this line starts from 9500 rubles.
Electrolux heating mat is manufactured by a well-known Swedish manufacturer. Its products have been on the domestic market for many years and are showing excellent performance. The main purpose of heating mats of this company is installation under tile and porcelain stoneware.
This product is also divided into two series:
• EASY FIX MAT.
• MULTI SIZE MAT.
The first option is equipped with a twin-core heater with triple Teflon insulation. The base of the mat is made of a textile material that does not lose its properties during use. Devices are designed for laying on an area from 0.5 to 12 meters. Power cable - 150 watts per square meter. The purchase of such a mat costs about 9,000 rubles (at maximum sizes).
The heating systems of this company are manufactured by a French company that offers inexpensive good quality products to the buyer. The device uses a 3.5 mm thick two-core cable. The laying area can vary from 1 to 13.5 square meters. The nominal power of the device is 150 and 200 W per square meter. The heating mat Equation can be used with tiles, laminated panels, linoleum and carpet. In the domestic market, one square meter of such a mat (200W power) costs about 3500 rubles.