Alexander Novikov – Marshal, military commander, Professor, member of Communist party. The civil war and WWII. Defender Of Stalingrad. The main reformer of the structure of the air force in time of war. Twice hero of the Soviet Union.
A significant increase in aircraft production has contributed to the emergence of the relevant military units and tactical formations. 30 years in military aviation has sent a huge number of officers. Among them was the future Marshal Novikov A. A. at that time his career began to go up. In 1936 he received the rank of Colonel, and two years later headed the staff of the Leningrad district. After the war with Finland Alexander Alexandrovich was waiting for a new post – the commander of the air force.
Meeting with Zhukov
On the eve of the Patriotic war, Novikov was transferred to the Kiev military district. In 1942, he met with Zhukov. He immediately invited him to lead the air force. After the appointment Alexander received the nickname Flying wing Zhukov.
The transformation of the air force
The Marshal Novikov began with the reform and radical restructuring of the air force. He decided to create some air armies, which greatly expanded the boundaries of the massive exploitation of aviation. To increase operational effectiveness, the air force also contributed to the creation of a homogeneous, bomber, attack, fighter – reserve corps, and air divisions. This was the great merit of Alexander Alexandrovich. These reforms gave the Red army a mobile striking force of unprecedented power. The high maneuverability of aircraft allowed to monitor the territory from the Black sea to the White sea. It is worth noting that Marshal Novikov was the first to manage an air battle from the ground by radio. For the first time he used it near Leningrad. And in the front scale used is the management of Stalingrad.
The battle of Stalingrad and other battles
3000 is the number of enemy planes helped destroy radio system, which is coordinated by Marshal of aviation A. A. Novikov, 1943, was his triumph, because it is the teamwork of pilots under the command of Alexander Alexandrovich helped to win. They defeated the tanks tried to break through to Paulus. And at Stalingrad, Novikov, under their own responsibility made a bet on the gunships. Marshall believed that in bad weather they are much better bombers will help in breaking the enemy's defense. Also for them it was easier to look for the airfields. As we know from history, the strategy of Alexander Alexandrovich was correct.
It should be noted that air army under his command participated in the battle of Kuban, helped in the liberation of Belarus and Ukraine, and also defeated the Kwantung army in the far East. For his fruitful work, air chief Marshal Novikov has received many awards from the USSR and from foreign countries. The most significant of these is the order of Lenin and medal "gold Star" (awarded twice).
Initiation of an investigation
Despite all his achievements, Alexander could not escape the fate of most Soviet commanders. Victory in the war significantly strengthened the role of the army in the eyes of society. Which meant weakening the influence of the party leadership. Besides, Stalin never trusted the military and believed that they need to keep at Bay and under tight control. The reason for the verification of Marshal Novikova and the army, the air force was the meeting of Joseph Stalin's son Vasili. He complained to his father "bad" domestic aircraft and said the high quality of American aircraft.
The conflict with Stalin's son
Vasily Stalin always spoke very highly of the air Marshal Novikov. And then he had his reasons. All the education of the son of the leader was from an unfinished middle school, Kachin school of pilots and a year's stay on aviators. However, at the age of 21 he was already a Colonel and was chief on air force satellites. Joseph Vissarionovich tried to maintain the myth of his own modesty in the home. His son, on the contrary, shamelessly violated army orders, behaved arrogantly and regularly staged fights, carousing, drunkenness, and outrage. Marshal Novikov has demanded that Stalin's son, strict observance of military discipline and tried to shorten the arrogant manners of Basil. For example, he took two of his three machines. Ex officio Basil had only one. Alexander Alexandrovich was perfectly aware that Stalin himself was aware of such antics son, but did nothing. In 1945 Novikov signed a decree on awarding the title of Basil of major-General. The egos of Stalin's son was piqued, and he began to intrigue, waiting for a convenient occasion for revenge.
A few months air chief Marshal A. A. Novikov, the biography which is published in many magazines military subjects, was removed from his post without any explanation and justification. Then he was arrested along with several people who hold key positions in the air force. So there was a "case of aviators." All the accusations were false. Marshal Novikov was not engaged in sabotage, but only gave the orders to eliminate the drawbacks of flying machines. By the way, the number of technical breakdowns were far below acceptable standards. In such a hasty production it can be called a miracle.
Opened the "business of pilots" organization "SMERSH", headed by Abakumov, developed three main lines. First – the collection of dirt on Marshal Zhukov. He had to stand by the head of the conspiracy to commit the USSR military coup. The second is the identification of all "pests" in the military industry and military aviation. The third is the identification of linkages between political and military figures. The primary motivation of the investigators was to find the reasons for the charges Zhukov. However, they did not hesitate to torture, beating up of people testify. But the main role in the persecution of Zhukov played Alexander Novikov. Air Marshal signed the letter denouncing him.
Immediately after the arrest of Novikov was taken to the Lubyanka. There he stayed for six years. Stalin sent him to the camp, as we understand that Alexander can come in handy. The Lubyanka every day the interrogation. They lasted until five in the morning. Then Novikov were given an hour to rest, and continued again. To sleep was impossible, as in a small cell all the time burning lamp of 500 watts. And on the belly it was impossible to turn over. After several days of such questioning, when the twice hero of the Soviet Union, Novikov was broken and exhausted by sleeplessness, he slipped the paper with the printed text. Exhausted and were in polubedova state Alexander signed it. Yes, and it could hardly be otherwise. In the course of further investigations it became clear that the denunciation is made up illiterate, hastily. No specifics was not in it. And the essence of the accusation is simply absurd – supposedly Zhukov attributed all achievements and victories to yourself. It is quite clear that Stalin was just using Novikov to eliminate Zhukov.
In early December 1954, the trial of Abakumov and investigators fabricated "case of aviators." Alexander Novikov (biography, reviews about Marshall in any history textbook) personally testified. Marshall returned to the position and property. But the incident severely crippled him, and he worked for a few months.
In March 1955, chief Marshal of aviation A. A. Novikov was dismissed. The main reason of suspension is called the "technical backwardness". Of course, this affected the health of Alexander Alexandrovich. He became ill and suffered a heart attack. Then there was surgery and six months ' rehabilitation at the hospital. In early 1956 Marshall was dismissed in the margin of the disease. However, he retained the right to wear a military uniform.
In 1966, a former air Marshal Novikov suffered a severe stroke and has completely departed from Affairs. Until his death he worked on a book in which he described the exploits of the Leningrad pilots. Third, Marshall's wife Tamara did everything possible to prolong his life. She served in the General staff of the air force and, in fact, was the thread linking Alexander Alexandrovich with the main business of his life – military aircraft. Novikov died in Moscow in 1976.
In April 1993, the Military Prosecutor of the Russian Federation was submitted to the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation on the recognition of seven people involved in the "aviation business" illegally repressed. A month later, the Supreme Council recognized the fact that repression for political reasons. But at the end of 1993, after the execution of the building of the Supreme Council all the documents were burned. Fortunately, Svetlana (daughter Novikova) had to manually copy the relevant document.
In the late 90s at the request of his wife, Novikova, the Commission of victims of political repressions carefully considered the information in the "aviation business" in 1946. The main conclusion to which she came was this: "the Case is completely fabricated and has no criminal and political overtones." The military Prosecutor's office fully agreed with this formulation. And at the end of 2000, chief Marshal of aviation A. A. Novikov fully rehabilitated.