Battleships of the Second world war has played an important role during large-scale naval battles that shook the skies above the seas and oceans exactly six years from the first of September 1939 and second of September 1945. They have not fulfilled their functions not lived up to its high expectations. But their construction was spent a lot of money, a lot of money was spent on their maintenance. The fate of these alleged "masters of the sea," guns of the failed rule, very instructive, and may serve as an example of an incorrect calculation, incorrect prediction of the upcoming strategies and tactics and the irrational use of economic resources.
The state of the marine tactical thought in the interwar period
Since then, as the seas thundered, the Anglo-Dutch naval battles, and until the mid XX century in the minds of the commanders of the fleets of the whole world existed virtually unchanged idea of the perfect ship. The main tactic formed at the same time, in the XVII century, and it consisted in the fact that to build all the power in the Wake of the column and then open fire with all barrels. Who sank more enemy units wins. Some confusion in the minds of the naval commanders introduced in 1916 battle of Jutland, held in a somewhat different scenario. Performing vigorous maneuvers, the German fleet caused the British forces who had numerical and qualitative superiority, substantial damage, incurring half the losses and "beaten on points" (in sports terminology) of the enemy. However, the victorious outcome of the battle hastened to declare the British, don't bother to analyze their, in General, unsuccessful actions. And to think it should. Perhaps, then, the battleships of the Second world war would have been more effective weapon in the struggle against fascism, or at least their would be less, which would free resources for other, more important defense programs. However, the correct output is not made and the winners of Jutland, the Germans. They (at least Hitler and his immediate entourage) also considered the power and size of the priority factor in overcoming the enemy. And other countries that had heavy fighting on the seas and oceans, adhered to similar views. All of them were wrong.
What is a battleship?
Question superfluous, and to answer it should go back to history, to the days when ships (then sailing, and later steam) opponents lined up in order of magnitude (i.e. each other), and guarantee of victory had the advantage of artillery weapons. System was represented by a straight line, it was dictated by the main principle of the battle, otherwise there would be interference in the line of fire, and power of the guns would be used to the full. The ships, which had the largest number of guns lined up on the decks, got the definition of "linear". In the Russian Navy caught the acronym "battleship" comprised of the two words "linear" and "ship".
Sails gave way to steam engines and turbines, but the principle and purpose of great artillery floating batteries, protected by armor and speed remained unchanged. To combine all the required fighting qualities was only possible under the condition of large dimensions. For this reason, the battleships of the Second world war had a monstrous displacement.
Battleships and economy
Shipbuilders of the thirties, carrying out orders, fleets and governments tried to provide them the most powerful and destructive in the history of mankind weapons. Not every country could afford to have at least one ship of this class, in addition to the defense he played and the role of the prestige fetish. Owning battleships, the state argued in their own power and demonstrated its neighbours. Today, nuclear weapons or aircraft carriers are a special club, access to which is allowed only to some countries with the economic potential of the appropriate level. In the thirties, a symbol of the military might of served ships of the line. This acquisition, moreover, that it was very expensive, but also require additional appropriation for the constant maintenance, maintenance and training of crews and infrastructure. In the navies of present units that survived the previous global conflict, but were down on the water and new. Battleships of world war II, that is built in the period from 1936 to 1945, was the focus of all last achievements of technical thought of its time. Their presence served as a guarantee of a new world massacre. To create such a powerful and expensive weapon was possible only in case if it is to be applied, and in the near future. Otherwise, it makes no sense.
How many of them were just
Over the entire period, called pre-war (actually the war was already in Spain and in the far East, for example), and all the years of the "hot phase" of the global conflict of the most developed countries tends to assert or to restore its regional (or world) dominance was built twenty-seven units of ships belonging to the class of linear.
Most launched the Americans for nine. This indicates a very serious intent of the United States to maintain its influence in the remote areas of the World ocean, however, without large-scale direct participation of the land forces, at that time quite modest.
Second place is Britain with its five units. Too bad.
Germany just rejected the terms of Versailles, launched four.
Italy, aspired to during the reign of Il Duce Mussolini in the Mediterranean the role of regional leader, were able to overpower the three large units. The same number of dreadnoughts managed to produce France.
Japanese battleships of the Second world war is represented by two units of the series "Yamato". Relatively compared to other members of the "club" a small number of the Imperial fleet was going to compensate for the cyclopean size of the ships.
The figures are actual. The plans were much more extensive.
Three Soviet battleships
The Soviet battleships of world war II were laid in tsarist Russia. Before the World war the Russian Navy was rapidly developing, the modernization programme launched by then, became a basis for growth for many years after the revolution.
Battleships had three: "the Paris commune" ("Sevastopol"), "Marat" ("Petropavlovsk") and "October revolution" ("Gangut"), all of the same project. They survived the hard times, though, and with injuries and served a while and after 1945. Thirty years of age for warships is not considered old, and in 1941 they reached that amount. Thus, the Soviet Union at the time of entry into the war, after the German attack had three fairly modern units ships linear class, inherited "inherited" from the tsarist regime. But this does not mean that plans to strengthen the Navy's leadership the USSR was not. They were, and not only plans but also fairly specific actions. Stalin was preparing the most ambitious project in the history of Russian shipbuilding.
The plans of the USSR
Why plans fail?
The battleship "Soviet Union" project "A" was built in Leningrad plant No. 15 in the summer of 1938, two units ("Sovetskaya Belorussia", "Soviet Russia") began to be built in Molotovsk (today this city is called the Severodvinsk), one in Nikolayev ("Soviet Ukraine"). So in project-mongering and manilovism Stalin to blame, no way, the plans set by the party, performed steadily. Another issue is that there were objective difficulties, which may subjectively have said before the law some friends, can not cope with the task. At the time of the German attack construction ships were in various stages of completion, but not more than a fifth of the total work. The most modern battleships of the Soviet Union the Second world war and stood up in line of battle, serving as a donor for other important defense programs. Used their guns, armor plates, but they at sea did not come out. Not enough time and expertise, testing technology has taken a long time.
If I hadn't?
Stalin is often blamed (and continue to do) in that he failed to prepare the country to repel the German invasion. In some ways these claims can be justified. However, given the situation in the first months of Nazi aggression setting, today it is possible to conclude that even the most modern and large Soviet battleships of world war II could not influence the course of the fighting that took place predominantly on the land front. In the summer of 1941, the operational area of the Baltic sea, because of its geographical features (secrecy), was closed by the mine fields and blocked submarine forces of the Kriegsmarine. Former battleships in the ranks of the Soviet Union during the Second world war was used as stationary batteries, the same coast. Their heavy guns of the main fire they struck the advancing enemy damage, but aircraft and long-range artillery succeeded in this more. Besides the sea access of such a huge ship is fraught with great risk. He is like a magnet, attracts all enemy forces, who calms down, only dropping it to the bottom. A sad example is the many battleships of world war II, steel became a tomb for its crew.
The Germans and their ships of the line
Gigantomania suffered not only Stalin, but also his main rival, the Chancellor of Germany. On the German battleships of the Second world war, he had great hopes that the construction cost is too expensive, but they had to crush the arrogant sea power of Britain. This, however, did not happen. After the loss of the "Bismarck" in 1941, shot a superior opponent, "the Tirpitz", the führer was treated as a dear and well-bred fighting dog to start in normal dog dump pity, and feed still have, and use it as a means of intimidation. For a long time the second battleship plagued the British, until they had him killed, bombing in obscure Norwegian fjord, the glory and pride of the Kriegsmarine.
So rested at the bottom of battleships of Germany. During the Second world war they got the role of large animals, inoculated pack smaller, but more agile predators. A similar fate awaited many other ships of this class. Their loss entailed huge casualties, they were often killed together with the crews at full strength.
Who built the largest and most modern battleships of the Second world war? Japan. "Yamato" and the second ship of the series, which became the last, "Musashi" had Titanic displacement (full) in excess of 70 thousand tons. These giants were armed with the most powerful guns of the main caliber 460 mm. Armor also did not know is equal to from 400 to 650 mm. to destroy this monster required dozens of direct hits by torpedoes, bombs or artillery shells. The Americans there were all these deadly weapons in sufficient quantity, and the circumstances were such that they were able to apply them. They were angry at the Japanese for pearl Harbor and pity did not know.
Battleships, US world war II presented by the ships of various projects, including the latest launched in the period from 1941 to 1943. To them in the first place is a class "ia" represented, in addition to head unit, three ("new Jersey", "Wisconsin" and "Missouri"). On the deck of one of them, namely, "mo", was the last point in a six-year world war. The displacement of these giant ships is 57.5 thousand tons, they had excellent sea keeping qualities, but for modern naval combat was, after the appearance of missile weapons, almost unusable, it would not hurt to use their artillery power for punitive measures against countries who were unable effectively to resist them. They served long and fought in different coasts:
– "New Jersey" – the Vietnamese and Lebanese.
– "Missouri" and "Wisconsin" – from the Iraqi.
Today, all three latest battleships, US world war II are at berth and take visitors-tourists.