The forest industry plays a leading role in the Russian economy. At the moment, the structure of this complex includes more than 20 industries, sub-sectors and industries. The forest reserves on the territory of our country are truly enormous. Wood is used in almost all spheres of the national economy. In addition, Russia is also the largest supplier of forests on the world market.
Thus, the main features of the forest industry of our country include, first of all, the widespread and very complex structure of the organization. Conventionally, branches of this sphere of national economy are classified into four large main groups:
- proper logging;
- woodworking (production of lumber and furniture);
- pulp and paper (chemical processing);
- wood chemical (production of turpentine, rosin, etc.).
Useful features of the forest
The most significant product supplied to our market by such an industry as the forest industry is, of course, the log. They build houses from it and also produce materials for the manufacture of furniture, paper, cellulose, ethyl alcohols, matches, etc. Among other things, the forest is:
- One of the largest sources of feed and food resources.
- Habitat of valuable game animals.
- The source of all sorts of medicinal plants.
- A means of protecting fields from wind and soil erosion.
- The source of oxygen and recreation venue.
Three regions are currently considered to be leading in this area of the national economy of Russia:
- Ural (Perm and Sverdlovsk regions);
- Northern (Arkhangelsk region);
- East Siberian (Irkutsk Region and Krasnoyarsk Territory).
Recently there has been an increase in logging in the Far East. Until recently, a lot of wood was supplied to the market in the Central and Volga-Vyatka districts. Unfortunately, however, the pace of procurement in these regions has now declined.
Forest industry geography: processing
The most labor-intensive sub-branch of this sphere of national economy is the woodworking industry. The types of products manufactured by her are unusually diverse. Wood processing includes the following main production groups:
- Plywood. Enterprises of this group are the biggest consumers of birch wood. Plywood is made mostly from it. Therefore, the factories specializing in the manufacture of this building material are located mostly in the Northern, North-Western and Urals regions.
- Sawmill production. This initial stage of processing of logs. In addition, forest industry supplies the market with materials such as lumber, boards, slabs, fence, etc. Historically, the sawmill production is concentrated in our country in the European part.
- Issue chipboard and fiberboard. These materials are made mainly from wood waste. Therefore, the enterprises of this group are located at most in the areas of logging and sawmilling.
- Furniture industry. This industry requires skilled personnel. And build furniture factories and workshops mainly in the cities.
- Match production. This product is made from aspen. As a result, match factories are located mainly in regions with large reserves of this type of wood.
Pulp and paper sub-industry geography
The forest industry enterprises of this group produce materials on high-tech equipment using various kinds of complex chemical raw materials and are extremely energy-intensive. Paper, cardboard and cellulose are made mainly from softwood. Therefore, the leading regions for the production of these materials are Karelia, as well as the Ural and Volga-Vyatsky districts.
Wood chemical industry
This sub-industry includes only two main groups of industries. First, it is the hydrolysis industry. Factories of this group produce such products as alcohol, glycerin, turpentine, rosin, etc. The main raw material for their production is waste wood processing industry. The second large group of enterprises is engaged in the production of plastics, cellophane, artificial fibers, varnishes, esters, linoleum. The raw materials for these materials and compositions are the products of the pulp and paper industry.
The irrational use of resources, therefore, is the most serious problem in such a sector of the national economy as the forest industry. Sectors and sub-sectors of this traditional for the country production can not develop quite successfully yet because of:
- Constant and uncontrolled increases in fuel prices.
- Commercialization of the transport industry. In terms of transportation, timber cargo in our country is second only to coal and oil.
- The lack of a regulatory framework governing economic relations with foreign enterprises. This problem is actually very serious, since most of the harvested timber at the moment is for export. Every year, Russia exported timber in the amount of 1.5-3.1 billion.
- Lack of control and order in terms of investment.
Similar problems are experienced by all areas of the forest industry. Also significant constraints are:
- Shortage of labor resources.
- Weak degree of development of forest rich areas.
- Harsh climatic conditions.
As you can see, the forest industry in Russia is experiencing a lot of difficulties. However, this industry is still traditional and extremely significant for our country.