The timber industry plays one of the leading roles in the Russian economy. At the moment, the structure of this complex includes more than 20 industries, sub-industries and industries. The reserves of the forest on the territory of our country are truly colossal. Practically all wood is used in all spheres of the national economy. Among other things, Russia is also the largest forest supplier in the world market.
Thus, the main features of the forest industry of our country can be attributed, above all, the prevalence and very complex structure of the organization. Conventionally, the branches of this sphere of the national economy are classified into four major major groups:
- logging proper;
- woodworking (production of sawn timber and furniture);
- pulp and paper (chemical processing);
- wood chemical (production of turpentine, rosin, etc.).
Useful functions of the forest
The most significant product delivered to our market by such a branch as the timber industry is, of course, a log. They build houses from it, and also produce materials that are used to make furniture, paper, cellulose, ethyl alcohols, matches, etc. In addition, the forest is:
- One of the largest sources of feed and food resources.
- The habitat of valuable game animals.
- A source of various kinds of medicinal plants.
- A means of protecting fields from wind and soil erosion.
- The source of oxygen and a place for recreation.
Geography of logging
The leading in this sphere of the national economy of Russia at the moment are three regions:
- Ural (Perm and Sverdlovsk regions);
- Northern (Arkhangelsk region);
- East Siberian (Irkutsk Region and Krasnoyarsk Territory).
Recently there has been an increase in logging in the Far East. Until recently, a lot of timber was supplied to the market by the Central and Volga-Vyatka regions. However, unfortunately, the pace of procurement in these regions has now declined.
Geography of the timber industry: processing
The most labor-consuming sub-sector in this sphere of the national economy is the woodworking industry. The types of products it produces are unusually diverse. Includes wood processing the following main groups of productions:
- Plywood. Enterprises of this group are the biggest consumers of birch wood. Plywood is made mostly from it. Therefore, the factories specializing in the manufacture of this building material are located mostly in the Northern, North-Western and Urals regions.
- Sawmill production. This initial stage of processing of logs. In addition, forest industry supplies the market with materials such as lumber, boards, slabs, fence, etc. Historically, the sawmill production is concentrated in our country in the European part.
- Production of chipboard and fiberboard. These materials are produced mainly from wood waste. Therefore, the enterprises of this group are located mostly in the areas of logging and sawmilling.
- Furniture industry. This industry requires qualified personnel. And they build furniture factories and workshops mainly in the cities.
- Match production. This product is made from aspen. As a consequence, factories for the production of matches are located mainly in regions with large reserves of this variety of wood.
Geography of the pulp and paper industry
Forest industry enterprises of this group produce materials on high-tech equipment using a variety of complex chemical raw materials and are extremely energy-intensive. Paper, cardboard and cellulose are produced mainly from coniferous species of wood. Therefore, the leading regions for the production of these materials are Karelia, as well as the Ural and Volga-Vyatka regions.
Wood chemical industry
This sub-sector includes only two major groups of industries. Firstly, it is a hydrolysis industry. Factories of this group produce such products as alcohol, glycerin, turpentine, rosin, etc. The main raw material for their production is the waste of the woodworking industry. The second large group of enterprises produces plastic, cellophane, artificial fiber, varnishes, ethers, linoleum. The raw material for these materials and compositions is the products of the pulp and paper industry.
The irrational use of resources, therefore, is the most serious problem of such a sphere of the national economy as the timber industry. The branches and sub-sectors of this traditional production for the country can not develop quite successfully yet because of:
- A constant and uncontrolled rise in fuel prices.
- Commercialization of the transport industry. In terms of transportation, forest products in our country are inferior only to coal and oil.
- The lack of a regulatory framework governing economic relations with foreign enterprises. This problem is actually very serious, since most of the harvested timber at the moment is for export. Every year, Russia exported timber in the amount of 1.5-3.1 billion.
- Absence of control and order in terms of investment.
Similar problems are experienced by all areas of the forest industry without exception. Quite significant deterrents are also:
- Lack of manpower.
- Weak extent of development of forest-rich territories.
- Harsh climatic conditions.
As you can see, the forest industry in Russia experiences many difficulties. However, this branch of production still remains traditional and extremely significant for our country.