Among various diseases, diseases of the musculoskeletal system are among the most common. The joint tissues are affected by various pathological processes that can lead to significant destruction. Therefore, it is difficult to overestimate the relevance of such topics as the treatment of the knee joint. Photos of the possible effects of diseases such as arthrosis or arthritis, as well as the results of neglected injuries speak for themselves.
Common diseases of the knee
Given the fact that there are a lot of diseases that can affect the knee joint, it makes sense to systematize them by selecting separate groups.
1. Individual diseases and structural features of the knee joint.
The following diagnoses are relevant for this category:
- tendinitis of the knee band;
- various dislocations of the patella and chronic instability;
- Baker cyst, etc.
2. Injuries of the knee joint, including their consequences:
- Tears of the anterior cruciate ligament, meniscus, tibial collateral ligament, posterior cruciate and fibular collateral ligament;
- hemarthrosis and knee bruises;
- rupture of the upper tibiofibular articulation;
3. Systemic diseases:
- Infectious diseases of the knee joint (tuberculosis, Lyme disease, etc.);
4. Injuries and diseases of systems and organs, the result of which is pain radiating to the knee joint:
- injuries and illnesses of the hip joint;
- Neurological diseases of the spine.
There are other reasons that can affect the condition of the knee joint (osteomalacia, toxic synovitis, osteomyelitis, cancer lesions, etc.). Often the above factors leading to joint pain are interrelated.
If we talk about the methods of recovery that medicine offers, they can be divided into surgical and conservative treatment.
Surgical direction is relevant if the course of conservative treatment did not lead to the stability of the knee joint. In cases where there is an injury in which the urgency of surgery is obvious, a course of physical therapy and physiotherapy is often prescribed to return full mobility and relieve edema. The surgical treatment itself in most cases comes down to arthroscopic surgery on the knee joint.
It is necessary to take into account the interrelation of various factors when it comes to such a part of the body as the knee joint. Symptoms, treatment and prevention of diseases related to cartilage tissue, always require a qualified analysis and approach. Therefore, conservative methods need to be coordinated with your doctor.
Conservative treatment involves the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and ice compresses. If you have to deal with hemarthrosis, then the accumulated fluid is aspirated. Conservative treatment of the knee joint is focused on the removal of swelling and pain, and subsequently - to restore full mobility.
Treatment methods for sprains of the joint
The choice of a specific method of restoring ligaments subjected to stretching depends largely on the degree of injury. In order to reduce swelling after injury, it is necessary to lie down and fix the leg above the level of the heart. This will lead to an outflow of blood, and the swelling will decrease.
For a problem such as stretching the knee, treatment involves applying ice to the damaged part of the leg. Ice should be used several times during the day for 15-20 minutes. The result of exposure to cold will be a narrowing of the blood vessels, leading to a decrease in swelling and bruising.
Depending on the degree of stretching of the ligaments, you can use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Diclofenac, Phenylbutazone, Ibuprofen). Relevant and ointment, relieve inflammation. Despite the fact that these drugs can be bought in a pharmacy without a prescription, it is better to coordinate their use with your doctor.
When you have to deal with sprains of the knee joint, you should pay attention to the possibility of imposing fixing bandages. As a bandage, you can use an elastic bandage. It is important to correctly calculate the degree of compression: supporting the knee, the bandage should not pinch the blood vessels. If there was an acute injury, you need to put a bandage.
After a few days of treatment of ligaments from the time of stretching, it makes sense to go to the heat treatment. In this case, the treatment of the knee joint at home implies the use of dry heat (hot water bottle, hot water bottle) and moist heat compresses: it is necessary to soak the fabric in warm water with the addition of chamomile and other medicinal herbs, then apply a few minutes to the damaged area knee. Thermal treatment should be applied several times a day (3-4). In this case, the duration of each procedure must be at least 10 minutes.
With a moderate degree of injury, a plaster cast can be applied for a period of 3 to 4 weeks. If the degree of sprain can be characterized as severe, a more radical treatment of the knee joint is used - an operation whose aim is to restore the damaged structure of the knee. After surgery, the patient is left in the therapeutic building. If necessary, plaster or orthosis can be applied.
Treatment methods for joint rupture
When a rupture of the knee arises as a result of the injury, treatment may involve both surgical intervention and conservative methods.
Conservative treatment is used if the ligament rupture was incomplete. First of all, the joint must be brought to rest with the help of various means of immobilization: a rigid orthosis, a plaster splint. If the lateral ligaments were damaged, the joint should be fixed for a period of 5 to 8 weeks. In the case of an incomplete rupture of the ligament itself, fixation will be relevant for 10 weeks. When fluid accumulates in the joint, the doctor punctures, evacuating the contents.
During the period when the joint will be immobilized, it is allowed to perform elements of physiotherapy exercises, with the use of adjacent joints. After immobilization is completed, it is necessary to undergo a rehabilitation course, including physiotherapy, massage and gymnastics.
It makes sense to use surgical treatment only in case of complete rupture of ligaments, when conservative methods of treatment of the knee joint are ineffective. As a rule, arthroscopy is used in this case - a minimally invasive technique using endoscopic equipment. This means that all manipulations with tissues are performed with minimal associated tissue damage. After rupture, the ligaments are restored by stitching, as well as replacement by their own tendons or grafts.
As a preventive measure of muscle hypertrophy, therapeutic physical training, massage and physiotherapy are prescribed. In order to quickly restore tissue, it makes sense to use electrified Polimedel film. It allows you to restore the electrical potential of blood cells, resulting in improved blood supply, including capillary, reduction of edema, nutrition of tissue cells with oxygen and other necessary elements.
Treatment of torn ligament folk remedies
Folk techniques are good because they do not pose a danger to the ligaments and the joint itself and help to significantly improve the condition of the damaged leg. These methods are used by many people who have a problem knee joint. Treatment (reviews, as a rule, positive) with the use of various decoctions, tinctures and ointments in most cases shows excellent results.
Here are some popular recipes:
- It is necessary to take a kilogram of chopped horseradish, stir it in 4 liters of water and boil for 5 minutes. When the broth cools down, add 500 g of honey to it. The resulting mixture must be refrigerated. It is necessary to be treated with such a composition every six months.
- Laurel leaves (30 pcs.) Are boiled in boiling water (200g) for 5 minutes. After this broth must be insisted for 4-5 hours. The resulting tincture should be drunk within two hours in small sips.
- At 2 liters of water, throw 250 grams of rye and boil. After the broth has cooled, it must be drained and add half a liter of vodka, 1 kilogram of honey and 3 teaspoons of barberry. Thoroughly mixing all the ingredients, you must put the mixture for 2 weeks in a dark place. To take it you need before eating 1 tablespoon.
Folk treatment of the knee includes a technique such as the use of dirt. It is necessary to apply sea silt to the affected place, leaving it for 15-30 minutes. For a brighter effect, it is worth repeating the procedure once every two days for a month.
Deforming arthrosis - treatment methods
With the development of this disease, there is constant pain in the joint, which increases over time. Moreover, painful sensations are present both during movement and at rest. The essence of the effect of deforming arthrosis is reduced to the defeat of cartilage tissue, as a result of which it wears out and collapses. The result of this process can be a dysfunction of the articular mechanism.
In the framework of the theme: “Knee joint, symptoms, treatment” it is worth highlighting the following signs of deforming arthrosis:
- the feeling of pain in the knee extends to the ankle;
- in the morning the crackling and crunching in the joint is clearly heard;
- while climbing or descending the stairs, the pain becomes noticeably stronger;
- due to the sensation of pain, a bent leg is difficult to straighten.
With a problem such as a deformed knee, treatment should be complex. It is also important to take into account the individual characteristics of a particular patient. To alleviate the symptoms of arthrosis deformans, you can use conservative treatment (medication), traditional techniques for relieving pain, physical therapy, physiotherapy, as well as dietary supplements that contribute to the regeneration of cartilage tissue.
Biological additives should be given special attention. The bottom line is that they are extremely effective in the early stages of the disease, because they improve the elasticity of cartilage, stimulate the process of regeneration of cartilage tissue and help normalize articular function, prevent dystrophic changes in the cartilage tissue and have a beneficial effect on the development of synovial fluid. When the knee joint is affected, treatment without surgery will be much more effective if such biological supplements are used.
In most cases, to obtain the effect described above, patients are prescribed a course of chondroprotectors (intramuscular injections), based on the use of glucosamine and chondroitin. Actual can be considered and the use of additives that contain natural collagen.
In the process of treatment, it is important to understand that the use of chondroprotectors at the III stage of the disease will not bring tangible results. At this stage, deforming arthrosis can be neutralized only by surgery. With such severe changes in the articular mechanism, hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs based on corticosteroids (“Diprospan”, “Hydrocortisone”, “Prednisolone”) are used to relieve pain.
In the later stages of joint deformation, the use of vasodilators, which reduce blood congestion in the area of the joint, relieve swelling and improve blood circulation, is important. Treatment of the knee at home is important only in the early stages of the disease.
Treatment of advanced stage of arthrosis using mechanical techniques
When the destruction of cartilage becomes critical, the use of radical joint repair techniques remains. This may be a surgical intervention with full or partial endoprosthetics, as well as traditional extension, in which the limb is stretched by means of a special apparatus. Such a device allows you to expand the distance between the bones. As a result, the load on the joint is significantly reduced.
As for endoprosthetics, its feature is the following fact: prostheses need to be changed every few years, and this, of course, is not very convenient.
Traditional methods of treatment of arthrosis
With such a serious disease as osteoarthritis of the knee, you should not neglect the folk methods. Of course, they are far from always able to completely neutralize the problem, especially in the advanced stage, but at the same time some drugs can remove the painful symptoms and significantly speed up the drug treatment.
Folk treatment of the knee in case of arthrosis can begin with the use of essential oils. In order to prepare such a tool, you need to select a particular oil and add a few drops of it to petroleum jelly.
It should be borne in mind that peppermint oil can relieve pain and cool the knees, lavender effectively relieves the inflammatory process, and rosemary has an extremely positive effect on blood circulation (very important for arthrosis, resulting from a sedentary lifestyle).
In the early stages, treatment of the knee with popular methods may include honey wrapping, which helps reduce pain. All that needs to be done is to smear honey on the affected leg area and put on a soft bandage on top, in which there should also be honey.
Do not neglect the proven methods: massage the knee joint in warm water, medical gymnastics and cooling the affected area.
With the development of arthritis, a person feels pain in the joint during movement. There may be a change in shape, the appearance of swelling, limited mobility, fever, in some cases - redness of the skin. Essentially, arthritis is an inflammatory process in the knee joint that was caused by an infection or abrasion of the articular cartilage. Since the disease is chronic, its symptoms can manifest for several months or even years.
Treatment of the knee in this case implies a complex effect:
- massage complex and manual therapy;
- Exercise therapy and wellness exercises;
- physiotherapeutic effect: electrophoresis, UHF, magnetic therapy, paraffin baths and warming;
- folk techniques;
- drug treatment (pills, ointments, injections).
As for the ointments, it is worth noting that the treatment of the knee joint involves three key effects: analgesic, warming and anti-inflammatory. Injections are prescribed only if it is necessary to remove severe pain. For this purpose, Novocain or Lidocaine may be administered.
Chondroprotectors are relevant when you need a rapid buildup of cartilage tissue. This group of drugs prevents the rapid deterioration of cartilage and accelerates its recovery.
Knee joint: treatment without surgery
For various diseases and injuries of the joint, some popular techniques are used, which have a general restorative effect:
- Chestnut tincture (reduces pain). In order to cook it, you need to cut 300 g of chestnuts and fill them with water. Further capacity with chestnuts is put for two weeks in a dark place. Water needs to be shaken daily. Two weeks later, the resulting substance can be smeared knee before bedtime.
- Treatment of the knee by folk remedies also includes the use of apple cider vinegar. In a glass of water is diluted with a spoonful of vinegar and taken up to 5 times a day before meals. It is necessary to use this technique for 2-4 weeks.
- To remove the pain in the knee will help a decoction of garlic and lemon. It will take 4 lemons, from which all the bones are pre-cleaned. Next, the lemons with three heads of garlic scroll in a meat grinder. The resulting mass is poured boiling water and thoroughly mixed. After a day of infusion, strain the broth. Take it before meals, once a day for 40 ml.
- Treatment of the knee with traditional methods is difficult to imagine without salt baths, which are recommended to be taken during the acute period twice a day. To do this, you need to add the Dead Sea salt and bishofitnye minerals. But this technique has certain limitations, so that before using it will not hurt to consult a doctor.
- Compresses also deserve attention. With their help, you can simultaneously reduce the load on the joint and remove pain in the damaged area. Compresses are often used with tight bandages or bandages. In case of arthrosis it is recommended to soak them with medical bile, which has a warming and anti-inflammatory effect. It is worth paying attention to the solutions of dimeskid, bischofite and pepper plasters. Such compresses can help even those patients who could not relieve pain through the use of analgesics.
- Modern treatment of the knee by folk remedies involves the use and birch tincture. In order to prepare it, you need to pour 20 g of birch buds with 100 ml of alcohol and leave for 20 days. After the tincture must be filtered and taken three times a day, diluting it in a tablespoon of 20-30 drops.
As you can see, the knee joint can be affected by various diseases. Injuries can also significantly complicate his condition. It is important to understand that inflammatory processes, the destruction of cartilage and ligament rupture are problems that, without timely treatment, will lead to even greater damage to the joint. Therefore, a visit to the doctor should be a natural reaction to the first pain symptoms in the knee area.