Various reasons lead to the fact that some functions may be lost by us in the process of life. This also applies to the dentition. Or the patient is confronted with anomalies that affect the quality of life. For example, it may be the curvature of the teeth or the wrong bite. Just in order to correct all the errors and bring the dentition to the normal state, and this is the purpose of such an industry in medicine as orthopedic dentistry. But it would be interesting to learn a few historical facts, stages of development, the names of people who have put their hand to this.
History of prosthetic dentistry in Russia
In 1891, a charter was issued for private schools in which they taught dentistry. This event was preceded by the activities of the best representatives of the dental surgery of the time (N. N. Znamensky, M. M. Chemodanov, P. G. Dauge, N. N. Nesmeyanov, etc.). This charter legalized the existence of two categories of doctors who were engaged in dental activities. Since then, two directions have emerged: dentists and dentists. At that time, these were private offices, and only wealthy segments of the population could receive assistance. And so it was before the October Revolution. Then private dental schools were closed, and outpatient clinics and polyclinics were established in all cities, which provided free services to the population.
Along with the discovery of dispensaries, the paths that led to the study of this science were laid. Just at that time, the transition from bare technicalism to research methods was noted.
At the same time, the question arises of the need to reform specialized education. People's Commissariat of Health decides on the transfer of dental education in the walls of the medical college. Then they opened the Department of Orthopedics, where they trained qualified specialists. And so the first stone was laid in the foundation of a unified medicine. And dentistry becomes its integral part.
During this period, new cadres of researchers are being created. They were involved in raising the country's dentistry to one of the first stages of scientific development.
Orthopedic dentistry: a dental technician. The origin of the specialty
Along with the development of dentistry, it was necessary to start forming cadres of technicians. Even before the revolution, practicing dentists was practiced. Their knowledge did not meet the standards and requirements of medicine. Therefore, organized a special dental courses. Then they are renamed into technical schools. At that time there was no literature on this specialty. As a result, the society received illiterate doctors.
Of course, since then, prosthetic dentistry and prosthetic dentistry have reached a new level. Today, it is even scary to imagine how to eliminate dental problems at that time.
Today, orthopedics is a separate branch of dentistry. Science is devoted to the study, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various disorders of the dental system of a morphological and functional nature. Taking into account achievements in a number of areas of medicine, prosthetic dentistry focuses on the development of tactics for the treatment of integrity defects. Technologies for restoring the functions of the dental system are also constantly being developed.
Due to significant achievements in studying the pathogenesis and etiology of diseases, the in-depth development of diagnostic methods, there was a transition from substitution therapy (prosthetics) to functional therapy. It also includes preventive measures aimed at preventing the occurrence of dysfunction of the dental apparatus.
Sections of prosthetic dentistry
The general course is called propaedeutic. This means that information is provided to students in the preparatory key. At the propaedeutic stage of orthopedic dentistry, anatomical features of the jaw (chewing apparatus) are studied. At the same time, existing diagnostic methods are considered. Students study the symptoms and semiotics of diseases. They are taught clinical materials science, prosthetic and laboratory equipment. At this point, most students finally choose their specialty. Orthopedic dentistry has made a big leap today. She took a worthy place in general medicine. However, it has several subsections.
1. The study of the composition, properties, technology of the use of various components of materials science.
2. Attention has been paid to the technical manufacture of orthopedic constructions in laboratory and dental prosthetic techniques.
In a separate course, there are three main sections.
1. Prosthetics of the dentition. It consists in replacing defects with prostheses.
2. Orthodontics. The section dedicated to the prevention and treatment of abnormalities (distortions) of the dental system. As a rule, these defects occur during the growth and development of the organism.
3. Maxillofacial orthopedics. Her efforts are aimed at eliminating anomalies of the jaws and facial areas. As a rule, they occur after injuries, inflammatory processes, various operations and neoplasms.
Underlying theoretical principles
There are several theoretical principles. They determine the course of science.
1. Obligation to obtain higher education by an orthopedic dentist.
2. Teaming has a positive impact on activities such as orthopedic dentistry. Prosthetics is performed effectively only in specialized clinics.
3. Lies in the idea of the unity of all body systems. On its basis, diseases of the dentition are not considered separately from the general condition of the patient.
4. The nosological principle provides for obtaining certain knowledge of etiology. He confirms the fact that prosthetics is a therapeutic and prophylactic measure.
5. Any orthopedic construction is considered as a method of treatment. Accordingly, it has side effects. Information about all the properties of the prosthesis and the indications for its purpose determines the successful prosthesis.
6. The principle of staging follows from the previous definition. When choosing a prosthesis, the specialist takes into account not only the nature of the disease and the individual characteristics of the patient. Considered also the stage of the disease.
7. This principle obliges the physician to observe the patient until the problem is completely solved.
8. This definition refers to the importance of complex therapy. Many diseases can not be treated separately. It will not work.
9. It refers to preventive measures.
10. The last principle says that it is necessary to follow the rules of medical ethics.
Students and teachers of dental faculties in medical schools use textbook Lebedenko. Prosthetic dentistry is described in it succinctly. The course includes clinical and clinical guidelines and aspects of prosthetics.
The manual pays deserving attention to the rules of case management, preventive measures, and features of the care of orthodontic structures. Each topic is accompanied by test items. The index is located at the end of the textbook. The manual meets all modern requirements.
The scheme of examination of the patient
Practice in orthopedic dentistry is carried out based on a specific sequence of examination of the patient.
1. It is necessary to listen to complaints, make anamnesis.
2. Direct review of the problem.
3. The study of the state of the oral cavity.
4. Establishment of the diagnosis.
5. Filling out the medical history.
6. Specifying passport data and date.
7. Collection of data from clinical or special studies.
Relevance of the topic
Prosthetic dentistry today is at a decent level of its development. Thanks to scientific research and the introduction of new technologies, the population has the opportunity to receive qualified assistance. Students are trained in such a way that they have an adequate knowledge base for a general course. At the same time, special attention is paid to profile inclinations. Science has divided the specialists so that the patient can receive help at the highest level in the clinic. And to this day, research is being conducted, the purpose of which is to increase the skill level of doctors and treatment technologies.