Lavrenty Beria (29.03.1899-23.12.1953) is one of the most odious personalities of the twentieth century. Political and personal life of this man still causes controversy. To clearly assess and comprehend the political and public figure today can no historian. Many of the materials of his personal life and public activities are stored under a signature stamp “confidentially”. It may take some time, and modern society will be able to give a full and adequate response to all questions related to this person. It is not excluded that will receive a new reading of his biography. Beria (Lavrenty Pavlovich pedigree and activities well studied by historians) is a whole epoch in the history of the country.
The childhood and youthful years of the future policy
Who is the origin of Lavrenti Beria? The nationality of his paternal – Mingrelian. It is an ethnic group of Georgian people. About pedigree policy many modern historians controversies and questions. Beria, Lavrenty Pavlovich (real name – Lavrenty Paules dze Beria) was born 29.03.1899 year in the village of Merheuli Kutaisi province. The family of the future statesman was descended from poor peasants. From early childhood, Lavrenty Beria was known for his unusual zeal for knowledge that was not typical of the peasantry of the 19th century. To continue his studies, the family was forced to sell part of his house in payment for training. In 1915, Beria entered Azerbaijan technical school, and 4 years later with honors finishes it. Meanwhile, after joining the Bolshevik party in March 1917 he took an active part in the Russian revolution, as a secret agent of the Baku police.
First steps in politics
The Georgian reign
In 1926 Lawrence p. rose to the post of Deputy Chairman of the GPU of Georgia. In April 1927, Lavrenty Beria became the people's Commissar of internal Affairs of the Georgian SSR. Competent leadership of Beria allowed him to win the favor of Stalin, a Georgian by nationality. Expanding its influence in the party apparatus, Beria was elected in 1931 to the post of First Secretary of the Communist party of Georgia. A remarkable achievement for a man at age 32. Now Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria, the nationality of the state which corresponds to the item that will continue to ingratiate himself to Stalin. In 1935 Beria published a large treatise, which greatly exaggerated the importance of Joseph Stalin in the revolutionary struggle in the Caucasus before 1917. The book was printed in all major public print media that made Beria a figure of national importance.
Partner of Stalinist repression
When Joseph Stalin from 1936 to 1938, began their reign of political terror in the party and the country, Lavrenti Beria was an active accomplice. Only in Georgia thousands of innocent people died at the hands of the NKVD, and was convicted and sent to prisons and labor camps within the national Stalinist vendetta against the Soviet people. Many party leaders were killed during the sweeps. However, Lavrenty Beria, whose biography is left untainted, unscathed. In 1938 Stalin rewarded him with appointment as head of the NKVD. After a full cleaning of the leadership of the NKVD Beria gave key positions to his associates from Georgia. Thus he increased his political influence in the Kremlin.
Pre-war and war periods of the life of Beria
In February 1941, Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria became the Deputy of Council of people's Commissars of the USSR, and in June, when Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union, he became a member of the Defense Committee. During the war, Beria had complete control over the production of weapons, aircraft and ships. In short, his command was the whole military-industrial potential of the Soviet Union. Thanks to the skillful leadership, and sometimes cruel, Beria's role in the great victory of the Soviet people over Nazi Germany had one of the key values. Many prisoners in NKVD labor camps and worked on military production. These are the realities of the time. It's hard to say what would happen to the country if the course of history had a different direction vector.
In 1944, when the Germans were driven from Soviet soil, Beria was in charge of the case the various ethnic minorities accused of collaboration with the invaders, including the Chechens, Ingush, Karachays, Crimean Tatars and Volga Germans. They were all deported to Central Asia.
The leadership of the military industry of the country
From December 1944, Beria is a member of the Supervisory Board on the creation of the first atomic bomb in the USSR. For the implementation of this project required a large work and scientific potential. Thus was formed the system of State Administration of Camps (GULAG). Was assembled a talented team of nuclear physicists. The GULAG system provided tens of thousands of workers in the uranium mining and construction of test equipment (in Semipalatinsk, Vaygach, Novaya Zemlya and others). NKVD provide the necessary level of security and secrecy of the project. The first nuclear weapon test was conducted in the area of Semipalatinsk in 1949.
In July 1945, Lavrenti Beria (left photo), presented to the high military rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union. Although he never participated in the direct military command, its role in the organization of military production has become a significant contribution to the final victory of the Soviet people in the great Patriotic war. This fact personal biography of Beria, Lavrenty Pavlovich is not in doubt.
The death of the leader of the peoples
Age of Stalin nearing 70 years. More raises the question of successor of the leader at the head of the Soviet state. The most likely candidate was the head of the Leningrad party apparatus Andrei Zhdanov. Beria and Malenkov even created a secret Alliance to block the growth of party A. A. Zhdanov.
In January 1946 Beria leaves the post of head of the NKVD (which was soon renamed MVD), while retaining General control over national security issues, and became a member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee. The new head of the enforcement Department S. N. Kruglov is not a puppet of Beria. In addition, by the summer of 1946, Beria's loyal to Vladimir Merkulov was replaced by V. Abakumov as head of the MGB. Began a secret struggle for leadership in the country. After the death of A. A. Zhdanov in 1948, there were fabricated the “Leningrad affair,” in which many party leaders North of the capital were arrested and executed. In these postwar years under the unofficial leadership of Beria, was created an active network of agents in Eastern Europe.
Stalin died March 5, 1953, four days after the collapse. Political memoirs of foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, published in 1993, claim that Beria boasted to Molotov that he poisoned Stalin, though no evidence has never been in support of this statement. There is evidence that for many hours after Stalin was found unconscious in his office, he was denied medical care. It is possible that all the Soviet leaders agreed to leave the patient Stalin, whom they feared, to certain death.
The struggle for the throne of the state
After Stalin's death Beria was appointed first Deputy Chairman of USSR Council of Ministers and interior Minister. His close ally Malenkov becomes the new Chairman of the Supreme Council and the most powerful man in the country's leadership after the death of the leader. Beria was the second most powerful leader, given the absence in the Malenkov real leadership qualities. He actually becomes the power behind the throne and ultimately leader of the state. N. Khrushchev becomes Secretary of the Communist party, a post which was regarded as a less important post than the post of the Chairman of the Supreme Council.
The reformer “tipster”
Arrest and death: the unanswered questions
Historical facts give conflicting information about the overthrow Beria. According to the official version, N. Khrushchev convened a meeting of the Presidium on 26 June 1953, where he was arrested Beria. He was facing charges of having links with British intelligence. For him, it was a complete surprise. Lavrenty Beria briefly asked: “What's going on, Nikita?” V. M. Molotov and other Politburo members also spoke against Beria, and N. Khrushchev agreed to his arrest. Marshal of the Soviet Union G. K. Zhukov personally escorted Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Council. Some sources allege that Beria was killed on the spot, but this is incorrect. The arrest was kept secret while his top aides was arrested. Troops of the NKVD in Moscow, which was subordinate to Beria, was disarmed the regular army. The truth about the arrest of Lavrenty Beria, the Soviet information Bureau announced only on 10 July 1953. He was sentenced by a “special Tribunal” without protection and without the right of appeal. 23 December 1953 by the verdict of the Supreme Court was executed Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria. The death of Beria led the Soviet people to breathe a sigh of relief. This meant the end of an era of repression. Because for him (the people) Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria was a bloody tyrant and a despot.
Wife and son Beria was sent to a labor camp, but was later released. His wife Nina died in 1991 in exile in Ukraine
In may 2002, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation refused to satisfy the petition of the members of the family Beria on his rehabilitation. The claim was based on the Russian legislation, which provided for the rehabilitation of victims of false political accusations. The court ruled: “LP Beria was the organizer of repression against his own people, and therefore can not be considered a victim.”
A loving husband and a treacherous lover
Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria and women is a separate issue that requires serious consideration. Officially Beria was married to Nina Teymurazovna Gegechkori (1905-1991). In 1924 they had a son, Sergo, named after a prominent political figure after Sergo Ordzhonikidze. Life Nina teymurazovna was a faithful and devoted companion to her husband. Despite his infidelity, the woman was able to maintain the honor and dignity of the family. In 1990, being in a rather advanced age, Nina Beria met his wife in an interview to Western journalists. For the rest of my life Nina teymurazovna fought for moral rehabilitation of her husband.
Of course, Lavrenty Beria and his women, with whom he had been intimate, gave rise to many rumors and mysteries. From the testimony of the personal security Beria, their head was very popular with female. We can only guess, was it a mutual feelings between a man and a woman or not.
The Kremlin rapist
When Beria was questioned, he admitted that he had physical relations with 62 women, and also suffered from syphilis in 1943. It happened after the rape of the schoolgirl of the 7th class. According to him, he is her illegitimate child. There are many proven facts of sexual harassment Beria. Young girls from the suburban schools were abducted many times. When Beria noticed a beautiful girl, his assistant Colonel Sarkisov was approaching her. Showing the identity of the NKVD, he was ordered to follow him.
Often these girls were in soundproof rooms for interrogation in the Lubyanka or in the basement of the house on Kachalov street. Sometimes before raping the girls, Beria used methods of sadism. Among the high-ranking government officials, Beria was known as a sexual predator. He kept a list of her sexual victims in a special notebook. According to the domestic Minister, the number of victims of a sexual predator exceed 760. In 2003, the Government of the Russian Federation acknowledged the existence of these lists.
During the search of the personal Cabinet of Beria in armored safes one of the top leaders of the Soviet state were subjects of a female toilet. According to the list, compiled by members of the military Tribunal, were found: women's silk combinations, ladies tights, baby dresses and other women accessories. Among the state documents were the letters of love. This personal correspondence was wearing a vulgar nature. In addition to women's clothing, a large number were found objects, characteristic of men-perverts. All it says about the psyche of the patient great head of state. It is possible that he was not alone in his sexuality, not one tainted biography. Beria (Lavrenty Pavlovich to the end is not solved either in life or after death) is a page history of suffering Russia, which is still a long time to learn.