Pythagoras of Samos is an ancient Greek mathematician, philosopher and mystic, the founder of the Pythagorean school. The years of his life - 570-490. BC e. In our article, you will be presented with the biography of Pythagoras, his main achievements, as well as interesting facts about this great man.
Where is truth and where is fiction?
It is difficult to separate the life story of this thinker from the legends that represented him in the form of a perfect sage, as well as an initiate of the sacraments of barbarians and Greeks. Herodotus called this man "the greatest Hellenic sage." Below you will be presented with the biography of Pythagoras and his works, which should be treated with a certain degree of doubt.
The earliest known sources about the teachings of this thinker appeared only 200 years after his death. However, it is on them that the biography of Pythagoras is based. He himself did not leave the descendants of works, therefore all information about his teachings and personalities are based only on the writings of followers, who were not always impartial.
The origin of Pythagoras
Parents of Pythagoras - Parthenid and Mnesarch from the island of Samos. The father of Pythagoras was, according to one version, a stone-cutter, on the other - a rich merchant who obtained Samos’s citizenship during the distribution of bread during the famine. Preferred is the first version, as Pausanias, who testified about this, leads the genealogy of this thinker. Partenid, his mother, was later renamed her husband to Pythida (more on this later). She came from the Ankei clan, a noble man who founded a Greek colony on Samos.
The great biography of Pythagoras was supposedly predetermined even before his birth, which seemed to have been predicted in Delphi by Pythia, therefore he was called that way. Pythagoras means “the one about whom Pythia has declared.” This prophetess supposedly told Mnesarch that the future great man would bring so much good and benefit to people as no one else afterwards. To celebrate this, the father of the child even gave a new name to his wife, Pifaida, and called his son Pythagoras. Pythaida accompanied her husband on trips. Pythagoras was born in Sidon Phoenician around 570 BC. e.
Pythagoras goes to Egypt
At a young age, Pythagoras went to the country of Egypt to gain secret knowledge and wisdom from the priests here. Porphyry and Diogenes write that Polycrates, a self-tyrant tyrant, supplied this philosopher with a letter of recommendation to Amasis (Pharaoh), because of what they began to teach and devote not only to the achievements of mathematics and medicine of Egypt, but also to the sacraments, which for other foreigners were forbidden.
At 18 years of age, as Iamblich writes, the biography of Pythagoras is complemented by the fact that he left the island and reached Egypt, having traveled all sorts of wise men from different parts of the world. In this country, he stayed for 22 years, until among the captives he took him to Babylon Cambyses, the Persian king, who in 525 BC. e. conquered Egypt. Pythagoras in Babylon stayed for another 12 years, communicating with the magicians here, until finally he could return to Samos at the age of 56, where he was recognized by his fellow countrymen as the wisest of people.
Pythagorean life in Italy
It is unlikely that the reason for the departure of this philosopher could serve as a disagreement with Polikrat, he rather needed the opportunity to preach, to put into practice his teaching, which was difficult to accomplish in Ionia, as well as mainland Hellas. He went to Italy, because he believed that there are more people capable of learning.
A brief biography of Pythagoras, compiled by us, continues. This thinker settled in Southern Italy, in Croton, a Greek colony, where he found numerous followers. They were attracted not only convincingly stated mystical philosophy, but also a way of life that included strict moral and healthy asceticism.
Brotherhood of the Pythagoreans
The disciples of this thinker formed a religious order, a peculiar brotherhood of initiates, which consisted of a caste of like-minded people who worshiped the teacher. This order in Croton actually came to power, but at the end of the 6th century BC e. Because of the anti-Pythagorean sentiments, the philosopher had to go to Metapont, another Greek colony, where he died. Here, 450 years later, during the reign of Cicero (I century BC), the crypt of this thinker was shown as a local landmark.
Pythagoras had a wife, whose name was Feano, as well as a daughter, Miya, and a son of Telavg (according to another version, the names of the children were Arignoth and Arimnest).
When did this thinker and philosopher die?
Pythagoras, according to Iamblichus, headed the secret society for 39 years. Based on this, the date of his death - 491 BC. e. when the period of the greek-persian wars began. Referring to Heraclides, Diogenes said that this philosopher died at the age of 80, or even 90, according to other unnamed sources. That is the date of death from here - 490 BC. e. (or, unlikely, 480). In his chronology, Eusebius of Caesarea indicated as the year of the death of this thinker 497 BC. e.
The scientific achievements of Pythagoras in the field of mathematics
Modern historians suggest that this thinker did not prove the theorem, but could transfer this knowledge to the Greeks, which was known for 1000 years in Babylon before the time when the biography of the mathematician Pythagoras dates. Although there is a doubt that it was this thinker who managed to make this discovery, it is impossible to find weighty arguments to challenge this point of view.
In addition to the proof of the above theorem, the study of integers, their properties and proportions is also attributed to this mathematics.
Discoveries of Aristotle in the field of cosmology
Despite controversial issues, the merit in cosmology and mathematics of the Pythagorean schools are indisputable. According to Aristotle, the real ones were acusmatics who followed the teachings on the transmigration of souls. They considered mathematics as a science, coming not so much from their teacher, as from one of the Pythagoreans, Hippas.
Works created by Pythagoras
Did not write any treatises this thinker. It was impossible to compose the work of the oral instructions addressed to the common people. A secret occult doctrine, intended for the elect, could not be entrusted to the book either.
Interesting facts about Pythagoras
The name of Pythagoras has always been surrounded by many legends during his lifetime. For example, it was believed that he was able to control the spirits, knew the language of animals, knew how to prophesy, and the birds could change the direction of flight under the influence of his speeches. Attitudes to Pythagoras were also attributed to the ability to heal people, using, among other things, excellent knowledge of various medicinal plants. The impact on those around this person can not be overestimated. The curious episode from the life about which Pythagoras’s biography tells us (the interesting facts about him are by no means exhausted) is as follows: he once became angry with one of his students, who committed suicide from grief. The philosopher has since decided not to throw out his irritation on people.
You were presented with the biography of Pythagoras, a brief summary of the life and work of this great man. We tried to describe the events based on different opinions, because it is wrong to judge this thinker from only one source. The information about him is quite contradictory. Pythagoras biography for children usually does not take into account these contradictions. It represents an extremely simplified and one-sided fate and heritage of this person. A brief biography of Pythagoras for children is studied in school. We tried to reveal it in more detail in order to deepen the reader’s perception of this person.