Pythagoras of Samos is an ancient Greek mathematician, philosopher and mystic, the founder of the Pythagorean school. Years of his life - 570-490. BC. e. In this article, your attention will be presented to the biography of Pythagoras, his main achievements, as well as interesting facts about this great man.
Where is the truth, and where is the fiction?
It is difficult to separate the life story of this thinker from the legends that represented him in the form of a perfect sage, as well as the barbarians and Greeks dedicated to the sacraments. Herodotus called this man "the greatest Hellenic sage." Below you will be presented a biography of Pythagoras and his works, to which one should be treated with a certain degree of doubt.
The earliest known sources about the teachings of this thinker appeared only 200 years after his death. However, they are the basis of the biography of Pythagoras. He himself did not leave the descendants of the works, so all the information about his teaching and personality is based only on the writings of followers who were not always impartial.
The Origin of Pythagoras
Parents Pythagoras - Partenida and Myssarh from the island of Samos. Pythagoras 'father was, according to one version, a stone-cutter, on the other - a rich merchant who received Samos' citizenship for distributing bread during the famine. The first version is more preferable, since Pausanias, who testified about this, cites the genealogy of this thinker. Partenida, his mother, later was a husband renamed Pythaida (more on this a little later). It came from the clan of Ankei, a nobleman who founded a Greek colony on Samos.
The great biography of Pythagoras was supposedly predetermined even before his birth, which seemed to have been predicted in Delphi by Pythia, so he was named exactly that. Pythagoras means "one about whom it was declared Pythia." This prophetess reported to Myssarha that the future great man will bring so much good and good to people as no one else afterwards. On the joy of this, the child's father even gave a new name to his wife, Pythaid, and called his son Pythagoras. Pifaid traveled with her husband. Pythagoras was born in Sidon of Phoenician about 570 BC. e.
Pythagoras travels to Egypt
Pythagoras went to Egypt at a young age to gain secret knowledge and wisdom from the priests. Porphyry and Diogenes write that Polycrat, a tyrant of Samos, provided this philosopher with a letter of recommendation to Amasis (Pharaoh), because of what they began to teach and dedicate not only to the achievements of mathematics and medicine of Egypt, but also to the sacraments that for other aliens were taboo.
At the age of 18, as Iamblichus writes, the biography of Pythagoras is supplemented by the fact that he left the island and reached Egypt, having traveled all sorts of sages from different parts of the world. In this country he stayed for 22 years, while the captive did not take him to Babylon Cambyses, the Persian king, who in 525 BC. e. conquered Egypt. Pythagoras in Babylon stayed for another 12 years, communicating here with the magicians, until he was finally able to return to Samos at the age of 56, where his compatriots were recognized as the wisest of the people.
Life of Pythagoras in Italy
It is unlikely that the reason for the departure of this philosopher could be a disagreement with Polycrates, he rather needed the opportunity to preach, implement his teaching, which was difficult to implement in Ionia, as well as the mainland Hellas. He went to Italy, because he believed that there are more people here who are capable of training.
A brief biography of Pythagoras, compiled by us, continues. Settled this thinker in southern Italy, in Crotone, the Greek colony, where he found numerous followers. They were attracted not only by a convincingly expounded mystical philosophy, but also by a way of life that included a strict morality and healthy asceticism.
Brotherhood of Pythagoreans
The disciples of this thinker formed a religious order, a kind of brotherhood of the initiated, which consisted of a caste of like-minded people who deified the teacher. This Order in Croton actually came to power, but at the end of the 6th century BC. e. because of the anti-Pythagorean mood, the philosopher had to go to Metapont, another Greek colony, where he died. Here in 450 years, during the reign of Cicero (1st century BC), showed the crypt of this thinker as a local landmark.
Pythagoras had a wife named Féano, as well as daughter Mia and son Telavg (according to another version, the names of the children were Arignot and Arimnest).
When did this thinker and philosopher die?
Pythagoras, according to Iamblichus, headed the secret society for 39 years. Based on this, the date of his death is 491 BC. e. when the period of Greco-Persian wars began. Referring to Heraclides, Diogenes said that this philosopher died at the age of 80, or even in 90, according to other unnamed sources. That is, the date of death from here is 490 BC. e. (or, which is unlikely, 480). In his chronology, Eusebius of Caesarea described as the year of the death of this thinker 497 BC. e.
Scientific achievements of Pythagoras in mathematics
Historians of modernity suggest that this thinker did not prove the theorem, but could transfer this knowledge to the Greeks, who was known for another 1000 years in Babylon up to the time that the biography of the mathematician Pythagoras is dated. Although there is a doubt that this thinker succeeded in making this discovery, there can not be any weighty arguments to challenge this point of view.
In addition to the proof of the above theorem, this mathematician is also credited with the study of integers, their properties and proportions.
The discoveries of Aristotle in the field of cosmology
Despite the controversial points, the merits in cosmology and mathematics of the Pythagorean school are indisputable. According to Aristotle, the real ones were acusmaticians, who followed the doctrine of the transmigration of souls. They considered mathematics as a science that emanated not so much from their teacher as from one of the Pythagoreans, Hippas.
Works created by Pythagoras
This writer did not write any treatises. It was impossible to compile the work from oral instructions addressed to the common people. And the secret occult teaching, intended for the elect, to entrust the book was also impossible.
Interesting facts about Pythagoras
The name of Pythagoras was always surrounded by many legends during his lifetime. For example, it was believed that he was able to control spirits, knew the language of animals, could prophesy, and birds could change the direction of flight under the influence of his speeches. Pythagoras was also credited with the tradition of healing people, using, among other things, a fine knowledge of various medicinal plants. The influence on those around him is difficult to overestimate. A curious episode from life, about which the biography of Pythagoras tells us (interesting facts about him are by no means exhausted), is this: one day he became angry with one of his disciples, who committed suicide by grief. The philosopher has since decided not to spill his irritation on people anymore.
You were presented with a biography of Pythagoras, a brief summary of the life and activities of this great man. We tried to describe the events, based on different opinions, because judging this thinker, relying only on one source, is incorrect. Very contradictory information about him. The biography of Pythagoras for children usually does not take into account these contradictions. It represents the simplest and the one-sided fate and heritage of this person. A brief biography of Pythagoras for children is being studied at school. We tried to reveal it in more detail in order to deepen the reader's views about this person.