Ushinsky is considered one of the founders of scientific pedagogy in Russia. The biography of Konstantin Dmitrievich is known and still remains widely known in pedagogy. His views are still close in the upbringing of children, as well as the works of Sukhomlinsky V. Amonashvili Sh. And others.
The hero of the article realized his vocation as a young man. He did not just study and write scientific works, he applied his ideas in practice, working with children. Who was Konstantin Ushinsky?
Let's get started. Ushinsky was born, whose biography is reviewed, 02/19/1823 in the city of Tula. His father was a retired officer, a participant in the war with the French in 1812. His family belonged to the landed gentry. Mother Constantine died very early, in 1835.
Even before the death of the mother, the whole family moved to Novgorod-Seversk (Chernigov Province), where the father received the position of judge. Not far from the city, my father bought a small estate that stood on the bank of the Desna.
In 1844 he graduated from the university brilliantly and stayed for the master's exam. He was awarded the degree of candidate of jurisprudence. Two years later he became a professor at the Demidov Lyceum. In 1849, due to a conflict with the leadership of the lyceum on the basis of his liberal views, Ushinsky had to resign. Only five years later he will be able to re-engage in pedagogical work at the Gatchina Orphanage Institute.
Ushinsky died Konstantin Dmitrievich, a brief biography of which is given in the article, 12/22/1870. On the eve he had a cold, heading for treatment in the Crimea, because of which he drove to Odessa. It was here that his life was interrupted. He was buried in Kiev within the Vydubitsky monastery.
Ushinsky Konstantin Dmitrievich, whose biography is being examined, was married to a representative of a noble Cossack family, Nadezhda Semyonovna (nee Doroshenko). They met back in Novgorod-Seversky, and were married in 1851.
From marriage they had three sons and two daughters:
- Paul - died on the hunt.
- Faith - on their savings opened a male urban school (Kiev), which received the name of her father.
- Nadia - opened an elementary school in the village of Bogdanka with funds that she had gained from selling her father's work.
Basic pedagogical ideas
Once a teacher found an old archive of a former employee at the Gatchina Institute. Many books have brought him new ideas, which he outlined in the article "On the benefits of pedagogical literature."
Ushinsky, whose brief biography was reviewed, published many of his thoughts in the Journal for Parenting, Sovremennik, The Library for Reading, the Native Word, and the Children's World.
His main idea in pedagogy was the democratization of all education. He was a supporter of the idea of national education. For this he was often accused of freethinking.
Once in the Gatchina Institute, Ushinsky, whose biography is closely connected with pedagogy, completely went to work. In this school, he was able to introduce his ideas, he managed to eradicate the old order, such as informing, stealing. At the same time he was able to introduce a sense of camaraderie, and this he considered the basis of education.
During his career, he worked in the following educational institutions:
- Demidov Lyceum (1846-1849).
- Gatchina Orphan Institute (1854-1859).
- Smolny Institute of Noble Maidens (1859-1862).
At the Smolny Institute, thanks to his innovative ideas, students were allowed to spend holidays and vacations with their parents. After a conflict with the leadership of the institute teacher left the school. The pretext was a trip abroad for teaching.
He traveled a lot around the world, wrote his works, met with teachers in Russia, introducing new ideas into pedagogy in their minds.
The influence of Ushinsky's ideas
The most frequently mentioned work by A.O. Chernyaevsky, who compiled the “Native Speech” (1882) in the Azerbaijani language. The inspector of the Transcaucasian teacher seminary composed the first part of the book himself, and the second part together with his pupil Velibekov. In Azerbaijani, the work began to be called “Vete Dili”.
The manual was intended for students in grades 3-4. It was developed according to the method that Ushinsky once compiled. A brief biography is not able to fully disclose the significance of the Russian leader in domestic and world pedagogy. However, his ideas and methods still find their followers.
Works for children
Being abroad, the teacher published his most famous work - “The Native Word”. He was the first publicly available Russian textbook. It was designed for teaching children to read and write. Together with the book, he published a handbook for teachers and parents, which helped to conduct lessons on the “Mother Word”.
His manual has a great influence on the national folk school. Even today, it is used by many native language teachers. Only until 1917 it was republished 146 times.
Today in pedagogy, both the works and the biography of Ushinsky are popular. For children, he wrote short stories. Some of them are designed for children who have just learned to read. They consist of five sentences. An example would be the story "Bishka" about a dog that does not need to be able to read.
There are among his works for children and science-educational stories. For example, "Wind", which is designed for the average school age.
List of main stories:
- "A cow".
- "Wind and Sun".
- "Two goats".
- "Complaints bunny."
- "Forest and stream."
- "Nikita Kozhemyaka."
- "The dispute of trees."
- “Cowardly Vanya”.
- "Scientific bear".
- "Four wishes."
The memory of the teacher
Ushinsky, whose biography was connected with the upbringing of children, left his mark on life. According to his writings, teachers are still being prepared, and his children's stories are useful in the educational system, both for teachers and for parents.
Many institutions are named after this person and not only:
- The village of Ushinskoe (now Bakkonys) bore the name until 2000.
- Scientific pedbibliothek RAO in Moscow.
- South Ukrainian Pedagogical University in Odessa.
- Yaroslavl Pedagogical University.
- Grammar schools and colleges, schools in Moscow, Simferopol, Gatchina, Nizhny Novgorod, Kiev, Tula.
A large number of streets in different cities of the Russian Federation and Ukraine are named after a famous teacher. In the field of education in modern Russia, there is the Ushinsky medal, which has been awarded since 2004.