One of the founders of scientific pedagogy in Russia is Ushinsky. Biography of Konstantin Dmitrievich is known and still remains on hearing in pedagogy. His views are still close in the education of children, as well as the works of Suhomlinsky V. Amonashvili Sh. And others.
His vocation, the hero of the article understood in his younger years. He not only studied and wrote scientific works, he applied his ideas in practice, working with children. Who was Constantine Ushinsky?
Let's begin our acquaintance. Born Ushinsky, whose biography is considered, on February 19, 1823 in the city of Tula. His father was an officer in retirement, a participant in the war with the French in 1812. His family belonged to the petty nobles. Mother Constantine died very early, in 1835.
Even before the death of his mother, the whole family moved to Novgorod-Seversk (Chernigov province), where his father received the post of judge. Near the city, my father bought a small estate on the banks of the Desna.
In 1844, he brilliantly graduated from the university and remained for the passing of the master's examination. He was awarded the degree of candidate of jurisprudence. Two years later he became a professor at the Demidov Lyceum. In 1849, due to a conflict with the leadership of the Lyceum on the basis of his liberal views, Ushinsky had to resign from office. Only five years later, he will be able to again engage in pedagogical work at the Gatchina Orphan Institute.
Konstantin Dmitrievich Ushinsky, whose brief biography is listed in the article, died on 22.12.1870. On the eve he caught a cold, going to the treatment in the Crimea, because of what he came to Odessa. It was here that his life was interrupted. He was buried in Kiev within the Vydubitsky Monastery.
Married Ushinsky Konstantin Dmitrievich, whose biography is considered, was on the representative of the noble Cossack family Nadezhda Semenovna (in the nee Doroshenko). They met in Novgorod-Seversky, and were married in 1851.
From marriage they had three sons and two daughters:
- Paul - was killed on the hunt.
- Faith - on her savings opened the men's City College (Kiev), which received the name of her father.
- Nadia - opened an elementary school in the village of Bogdanka with funds that were saved from selling her father's labor.
Basic pedagogical ideas
Once the teacher found in the walls of the Gatchina Institute old archive of the former worker. Many books brought him new ideas, which he outlined in the article "On the Benefits of Educational Literature."
Many of Ushinsky's thoughts, whose brief biography has been examined, was published in the Journal for Parenting, Sovremennik, The Library for Reading, books Native Word, Children's World.
His main idea in pedagogy was the democratization of the whole education. He was a supporter of the idea of popular education. For this he was often accused of freethinking.
Having come to the Gatchina Institute, Ushinsky, whose biography is closely connected with pedagogy, he completely left for work. In this educational institution he was able to implement his ideas, he managed to eradicate the old ways, such as denunciation, theft. At the same time, he was able to introduce a sense of comradeship, which he considered the basis of education.
During his time he worked in the following educational institutions:
- Demidov Lyceum (1846-1849).
- Gatchina Orphan Institute (1854-1859).
- Smolny Institute of Noble Maidens (1859-1862).
In the Smolny Institute, thanks to his innovative ideas, the students were allowed to spend holidays and vacations with their parents. After the conflict with the leadership of the Institute, the teacher left the school. The pretext was a trip abroad for pedagogical activity.
He traveled the world a lot, wrote his works, met with Russian educators, introducing new ideas in pedagogy into their minds.
Influence of Ushinsky's ideas
Most often mentioned is the work of A.O. Chernyayevsky, who composed "Native Speech" (1882) in the Azerbaijani language. The first part of the book was made by the Inspector of the Transcaucasian Teacher's Seminary himself, and the second part - together with his pupil Velibekov. In the Azerbaijani language the work began to be called "Vete Dili".
The allowance was intended for students in grades 3-4. It was developed according to the technique that Ushinsky once composed. A brief biography is not capable of fully revealing the significance of the Russian figure in the domestic and world pedagogy. However, his ideas and methods still find their followers today.
Works for children
Being abroad, the teacher published his most famous work - "Native Word". It was the first public Russian textbook. It was designed to teach children primary literacy. Together with the book, he published a manual for teachers and parents, which helped to conduct lessons on the "Family Word".
His manual-guide had a great influence on the national folk school. Even today, many teachers of native speech use it. Only until 1917 it was reprinted 146 times.
Today in pedagogy both the works and the biography of Ushinsky are popular. For children he wrote short stories. Some of them are designed for children who have only learned to read. They consist of five sentences. An example is the story "Bishka" about a dog who does not need to be able to read.
There are among his works for children and stories of scientific and cognitive. For example, "Wind", which is designed for the average school age.
List of main stories:
- "Bodily cow."
- "Wind and sun".
- "Two little goats."
- "Complaints of a rabbit."
- "The cow."
- "Forest and stream".
- "Nikita Kozhemyaka."
- "The dispute of trees."
- "The cowardly Vanya."
- The Scientist Bear.
- "Four desires."
Memory of the Teacher
Ushinsky, whose biography was connected with the upbringing of children, left its mark on life. According to his writings, teachers are still being trained, and his children's stories are useful in the system of upbringing, both for teachers and for parents.
In the name of this person are named many institutions and not only:
- The village of Ushinskoe (now Bakkonos) bore the name until 2000.
- Scientific pedagogical library of the Russian Academy of Education in Moscow.
- South Ukrainian Pedagogical University in Odessa.
- Yaroslavl Pedagogical University.
- Grammar schools and colleges, schools in Moscow, Simferopol, Gatchina, Nizhny Novgorod, Kiev, Tula.
A large number of streets in different cities of the Russian Federation and Ukraine bear the name of a famous teacher. In the sphere of education in modern Russia there is a Ushinsky medal, which has been awarded since 2004.