The benefits of morning exercises are undeniable and proven by doctors all over the world. That is why starting the habit of conducting such a daily procedure begins from a very young age. Of particular importance is gymnastics in preschool. After all, at this age, kids are able to master the proposed exercises, to actively participate in the process. According to the program of preschool education and the accepted standard, preschool children master various types of gymnastics. Including morning, physical exercises during classes and after daytime sleep. As well as narrowly focused branches: articulatory, respiratory and finger exercises. In each age group of the kindergarten there are certain features, standards and recommendations for conducting this type of activity. Detailed information on what complexes of morning gymnastics are used in the second junior group, as well as other types of workouts for this age, we will consider in this article.
Why do we need gymnastics in kindergarten?
The body of a preschooler overcomes serious physiological changes in the process of growing up. In the presence of negative external factors, various diseases often occur, such as posture distortion, incorrect foot placement, visual impairment, and a general decrease in immunity. These consequences are caused by violations of the daily routine, lack of vitamins and other useful substances due to poor quality of food consumed by a child, unfavorable ecological situation, wearing uncomfortable shoes and poor-quality clothing, lack of physical activity, watching TV for a long time and using various gadgets, and much more .
Morning gymnastics in the second junior group, or, as it is called by the people, exercise, is an effective prophylactic agent that helps preserve and strengthen the health of the younger body. Thanks to regular sports activities, the incidence rate of preschool children is significantly reduced, and their motor and intellectual activity indicators improve. In addition, gymnastics in kindergarten is a regime point, which contributes to the disciplining, streamlining the daily activities of children, the development of endurance, will and, as a result, reflected in the character traits and adaptation of the child in society.
In addition, the morning gymnastics complexes in the second junior group of the kindergarten help teach the kids collective games, interact with each other, and also simply raise their spirits and motivate children to visit the kindergarten.
What is it for?
The goal of morning gymnastics in the second junior group of kindergarten is as follows:
- development of basic (specified in the program for pre-school institutions) physical skills;
- general strengthening and hardening of the body of children;
- the organization of the regime of the day and the disciplining of students;
- development in children of zeal, will, concentration, attention and other psycho-emotional components;
- the creation and strengthening of the team;
- increase the motivation of children to visit the garden.
How does charging on the child's body:
- blood circulation and metabolism increase, which leads to saturation of cells with oxygen and, as a result, to the improvement of the body;
- large and fine motor skills develop, movements are improved and complicated;
- developing a muscular corset;
- correctly formed musculoskeletal system;
- immunity is activated;
- the body is hardened;
- respiratory organs are trained;
- increases body tone;
- as a result of saturation of the brain with oxygen, intellectual activity improves.
What is the complex of morning gymnastics?
In order for invigorating gymnastics in the second junior group (as in any other age category) to be effective, and the goals set were fulfilled, it is necessary methodically and pedagogically to make an integral complex of exercises.
Morning gymnastics consists of the following structural components:
- Warm up. This introductory stage is aimed at preparing the body of the child for the perception of further, more complex physical exercises, and also aims to attract children's attention and give installation to the next lesson. At this stage, exercises are carried out on the construction in various ways, walking (for example, on toes, heels or on the inner arch of the foot), slow running. Warm up takes 1-2 minutes.
- The main part includes general developmental exercises listed in the educational program. Taking into account the physiological development of children, exercises should be carried out in the following sequence: shoulder girdle, torso, legs, feet. The main part of the morning gymnastics takes about 5 minutes.
- The final stage consists of jumping and running, after which it is recommended to walk or sedentary game in order to restore the pulse and breathing. This stage lasts up to 2 minutes.
Morning gymnastics in the second junior group should consist only of those exercises that the children consolidated in physical education classes, since the short procedure does not provide for the study of new material, the working out of unfamiliar movements. The purpose of morning exercises is not to learn, but to consolidate the skills known to children, the formation of a healthy lifestyle.
First of all, it should be noted that the morning gymnastics complexes in the second junior group must necessarily be held in a game form. So, you can come up with a certain theme. For example, charging may be called “Bear in Bor.” Educators offer kids to beat the famous poem, performing different types of walking, bending, squats.
Classes morning gymnastics in the younger group of kindergarten are much more effective and exciting when using rhymes, sports equipment, outdoor games, competitions and even theatrical activities.
Types of morning exercises
The methodology distinguishes the following types of morning exercises in a preschool institution:
- The traditional option involves a structured exercise based on general developmental exercises.
- The game form is carried out in the form of various outdoor games, competitions, tasks.
- The plot view of the morning gymnastics involves playing up a situational line, for example, “Children in the forest”, “In the meadow”, “Funny animals” and others.
- Rhythmic gymnastics is conducted under musical accompaniment, using children's musical instruments (for example, a tambourine) or beating tact with claps, walking, etc. In such classes dance elements are used, you can organize a round dance.
- With the use of children's exercise equipment and sports equipment.
Such classes are held year-round. But morning gymnastics in the second junior group in the summer has its own characteristics, which can be found below.
In order for classes to bring the desired result, you must comply with certain conditions. Namely:
- gymnastics should be done at the same time;
- in the warm season, they do exercises in the open air;
- in the cold season - in a well-ventilated gym;
- children's clothing and shoes should be comfortable and practical for sports activities;
- classes do not require strict discipline - children should feel relaxed;
- it is important to interest children in exercises, but it is strongly not recommended to resort to coercion;
- complexes of morning gymnastics in the second younger group are held no longer than 7 minutes;
- in the process of training, it is necessary to carry out a frequent change of activity, since children of a specified age, due to their physiological characteristics, cannot concentrate attention on uniform processes for a long time;
- the filling of the complex must comply with the requirements of the educational program and the state standard;
- in the classroom, an educator needs to develop not only physical skills, but also contribute to the development of emotional and psychological comfort.
Taking into account the level of psychological and physical development of children of younger preschool age, teachers developed methodological recommendations for conducting morning exercises in the specified age groups in the preschool educational institution:
- Duration of employment is 5-7 minutes.
- The main part consists of 4-5 exercises with repetitions 5-6 times.
- In the first half of the year, the physical skills and abilities learned in the previous year are consolidated.
- In the first months after getting acquainted with morning exercises, such a situation is allowed that not all children take part in the process, but only at will. But after 2 months, it is recommended that all children of the group join this activity.
- The complex does not change within 2 weeks. But if the caregiver has noticed a decrease in children's interest in charging, it is allowed to make small changes and additions.
- In the warm-up in the second youngest group, different types of walking and building exercises are required.
- The game ends with a mobile game, familiar to children or having simple rules. And also can be carried out breathing exercises in the second youngest group of kindergarten, contributing to the saturation of the body with oxygen, raising the tone.
- The most effective method for charging in the younger group is imitation. Therefore, the teacher shows all the exercises, but does not perform them in full, and suggests that the children complete them on their own.
- The teacher during charging must monitor the quality of the movements, as well as the breathing of the babies.
For morning exercises, as well as for gymnastics after sleep in the second younger group of kindergarten, you can use the following sports equipment:
- rubber light balls;
- massage bags or mats with different fillings;
- roller massager;
- plastic small dumbbells;
- wall bars as an exercise support;
- children's trampoline;
- "Obstacle track".
It is important that the equipment is serviceable and absolutely safe: it should not be heavy, have sharp corners, and break easily. Before class, an educator must inspect the condition of sports equipment.
How to make a set of exercises: help the teacher
Occupation must be holistic, that is, have a general idea. As mentioned above, the younger group children like storylines, games. Therefore, it is necessary to choose exercises according to the subject, giving each movement a game name.
For example, by choosing the story line “Jolly Bear”, at the warm-up stage, the teacher can suggest that children imitate a bear’s walk in the forest with different types of walking. Then, in the main part, continue the plot and do exercises “like a bear”, and in conclusion play the outdoor game “At the Bear in Bor”.
The same recommendations are followed when gymnastics is conducted after sleep in the second junior group.
How to conduct classes in the warm season?
The structure of gymnastics in the summer is no different from charging in the cold season. The only special feature is the venue - a sports ground or a pavilion in the yard of the kindergarten. In addition, it is important for the caregiver to select the intensity of the exercises depending on the ambient temperature. So, in case of cool weather, the load should be increased so that children do not freeze, and in hot weather they should be reduced to prevent overheating of the body. Gymnastics for the summer in the second younger group should contain more breathing exercises and outdoor games. In hot weather, it is recommended to conduct morning exercises in shorts and barefoot, thus performing a light hardening of children.
What is a “revival gymnastics” in kindergarten?
No less important exercise, beneficially affecting the health of children, is charging after a nap, or, as they call it in pedagogy, “awakening gymnastics”, in the second youngest group and others. The purpose of this activity is to restore the body tone after sleep. Most of the exercises such charging is carried out directly in the beds. From a prone position on the back or abdomen, children perform simple movements: sipping, kneading, rolling.
Gymnastics after sleep in the second youngest group
A complex of 5-6 exercises is performed. Duration is not longer than 5 minutes. Just as with morning exercises, it is recommended to conduct a revival gymnastics in a game plot form.
What is finger gymnastics?
Another type of charging for preschoolers is finger gymnastics in the second junior group. What is it? Direct kneading of fingers. Why do children need it? The fact is that the connection between fine motor skills (that is, coordinated finger work) and a person’s speech, as well as his intellectual capabilities, has been scientifically proven. Therefore, in kindergarten a lot of attention is given to finger gymnastics.
Finger gymnastics for children of the second younger group
In almost every general developmental lesson, finger gymnastics is used in the second youngest group or its elements. Just like any other exercises in kindergarten, finger warm-up is carried out in the form of a game. They offer rhymed gymnastics, “shadow theater”, finger massage or puppet (on the fingers) theater. In any case, this activity should bring joy to children and arouse interest, be easily remembered and reproduced, and also exceed 3 minutes in duration.
For example, this is how the finger gymnastics “Transport” is conducted in the second junior group of kindergarten:
On the road going car (imitation steering).
The sound is heard as rubbing tires (straighten palms and fingers, imitation of friction).
On the road you do not run (to threaten with your index finger).
They will signal you “bi-bi” (imitating the pressing of a signal with your thumb).
What is articulation gymnastics: goals, objectives, methods of implementation
Another interesting type of gymnastics for children is articulation. The name itself suggests that such activity is aimed at developing the work of the bodies involved in the formation of speech. Professionally and purposefully, such a gymnastics has the right to conduct a qualified children's speech therapist. But in order to prevent speech disorders, the educator can also use such exercises as a minute of rest in the process of conducting the scheduled lesson.
Articulation gymnastics in the second junior group should not exceed 3 minutes, consist of 2-3 exercises, and also be conducted in a playful way, be unobtrusive entertaining moment in the process of educational activity.
In the second youngest group you can offer articulatory gymnastics-imitation of animals. For example, the tutor asks the children to show how the puppy licks its nose with its tongue, how the hamster inflates its cheeks, the cat laps milk, and the bird whistles a song.
In speech therapy practice in the second younger group, such exercises as “We clean our teeth with the tongue”, “Drum”, “Turkey”, “Swing” and others are used.
Carrying out morning gymnastics in the second junior group of the kindergarten, as well as other types of exercises is an important component of the all-round development of children. Such classes not only improve the physical performance and capabilities of children, but are also a means of socialization, adaptation in the team of young students. And, besides, they contribute to ensuring motivation, establishing communication and just a positive attitude of children in preschool institutions.