The KGB of the USSR is the strongest organ that controlled state security during the Cold War. The influence of this institution in the USSR was so great that almost the entire population of the state was afraid of it. Few people know that the security system of the KGB of the USSR functioned.
History of the KGB
The system of state security of the USSR was established already in the 1920s. As you know, this machine almost immediately began to work in full-fledged mode. Suffice it to recall only the repression that took place in the USSR in the 30s of the 20th century.
All this time, until 1954, the state security bodies existed in the system of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Undoubtedly, it was absolutely wrong in the organizational plan. In 1954, two decisions of the highest authorities concerning the system of state security were adopted. On February 8, by decree of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU, security organs were removed from the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Already on March 13, 1954, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR established by its decree the USSR State Security Committee. In this form, this body existed right up to the collapse of the USSR.
Leaders of the KGB
In different years, the body was headed by Yury Vladimirovich Andropov, Viktor Mikhailovich Chebrikov, Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov, Vitaly Vasilyevich Fedorchuk.
Functions of the KGB
The general essence of the activity of this body is understandable, but it is not all about the tasks of the security bodies that they performed in the totalitarian regime for many years, it is known to a wide circle of the population. Therefore, we outline the main range of functions of the KGB:
- the most important task was considered the organization of intelligence activity in the capitalist countries;
- the fight against spies from foreign intelligence agencies on the territory of the USSR;
- work to counter possible leakage of data that are of importance to the state, in all areas of activity;
- protection of public facilities, borders and major politicians;
- ensuring the uninterrupted operation of the state apparatus.
Directorate of the KGB of the USSR
The Committee of State Security had a complex structure, consisting of the heads, departments and departments. I would like to dwell on the KGB offices. So, there were 9 divisions:
- The third administration was responsible for military counterintelligence. In those years, the urgency of the management tasks was enormous because of the active arms race between the USSR and the United States. Although the war was not officially declared, the threat of a conflict of systems from "cold" to "hot" was constant.
- The fifth unit was responsible for political and ideological issues. Providing ideological security and non-penetration of ideas "hostile" to communism in the masses is the main task of this structure.
- The Sixth Directorate was responsible for the observance of state security in the economic sphere.
- The seventh performed a specific task. When suspicions of serious misconduct fell on a certain person, an external observation could be established behind him.
- The ninth unit protected the personal security of members of the government, the highest party leaders.
- Operational and technical department. During the years of scientific and technical progress, the technology was constantly evolving, so the security of the state could be reliably protected only with good technical equipment of the relevant bodies.
- The tasks of the fifteenth administration included the protection of public buildings and strategically important facilities.
- The sixteenth division was engaged in electronic intelligence. It was already created in the last period of the existence of the USSR in connection with the development of computer technologies.
- Department for construction for the needs of the Ministry of Defense.
Departments of the KGB of the USSR
Departments are smaller, but not less important, structures of the Committee. Since the creation and right before the disbandment of the KGB of the USSR, there were 5 departments. Let's talk about them in more detail.
The Investigation Department was engaged in the investigation of criminal or economic crimes aimed at violating state security. In conditions of confrontation with the capitalist world, it was important to ensure the absolute secrecy of government communication. This involved a special unit.
The KGB was supposed to employ qualified personnel who had received special training. It was for this purpose that the Higher School of the KGB was created.
In addition, special departments created for the organization of wiretapping telephone conversations, as well as in the premises; to intercept and process suspicious correspondence. Of course, not all conversations were listened to and not all letters were read, but only if suspicions arose about a citizen or a group of people.
Separately, there were special border troops (the KGB of the USSR), which were engaged in the protection of the state border.