The Caucasus is the southernmost region of Russia. Terrific nature, warm springs, special culture and traditions of local peoples - all this makes it one of the most attractive places in the country.
Peoples of the Caucasus
Caucasians are a common name for more than 30 nationalities living in a region divided by the Greater Caucasus Mountains. Its northern slopes are the territory of Russia, the southern ones belong to Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.
The Caucasus and part of the Greater Caucasus is the North Caucasus. Adygei, Circassians, Kabardians, Balkars, Chechens, Ingush and Ossetians live on its territory. Ossetians are the only ones who preserved the Christian religion, the rest of the nations adopted Islam during the time of Ottoman influence.
Kabardins and Balkarians are related peoples just like Chechens and Ingushs. At the end of the 20th century, the united Chechen-Ingush Republic was divided.
Sea road to Crimea
From the Krasnodar Territory you can get to the peninsula with the help of the ferry. On board take passengers, cars and even rail. Ferries depart from the port "Crimea" to the port "Caucasus" 24 times a day, that is, every hour. A total of 6 vessels are involved in the crossing.
Before the crossing, there is a traffic police post, the drivers and passengers are checked documents. Check and design of coupons can take a lot of time. There are preferential categories of people who can get on the ferry without a queue. Reduced rates are not provided.
The ferry is useful to those who do not plan to travel outside the Crimea to the territory of Ukraine, since tourists who have fallen into the territory of a neighboring state can thus be deported.
Nature and climate of the Caucasus
A distinctive feature of the region are the mountains. They are relatively young, formed as a result of tectonic processes in the Quaternary, which began more than 2.5 million years ago and is still ongoing. The Greater Caucasus is a chain of several ridges that appear on the map as one solid formation. Its western part goes from the Black Sea to Elbrus, the central part - from Elbrus to Kazbek, and the eastern part - from Kazbek to the Caspian Sea.
High mountains prevent the penetration of cold air. They are the boundary between areas with a temperate and subtropical climate. In winter, the temperature in the region drops not lower than -5 degrees. This is due to the warm winds from the Atlantic Ocean.
In the region there are hot mineral springs, bathing in which contributes to the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Precipitation usually comes with western cyclones, so the eastern regions are more arid.
Mountain rivers are mostly filled with water, formed as a result of melting glaciers. They are cold and fast. The largest are Kuban and Terek. In their lower reaches swamp spaces are formed.
The Caucasus is majestic high mountains. One of the most famous in the world is Mount Elbrus. Its height is 5642 meters. It is higher than Mont Blanc, located in the Alps and attracting many tourists, skiers. Elbrus is the highest mountain in Russia, has two peaks. Eternal snows begin at an altitude of about 3,500 m. Below this mark are alpine meadows, striking in their beauty.
The famous commander Tamerlane was reading a prayer on this mountain. The Caucasus also attracted the German service of the Third Reich, who studied paranormal phenomena. Its representatives climbed the summits of Everest in 1942 to establish their flags there, which were removed by Soviet troops in 1943.
Elbrus is a sleeping volcano. Its last eruption occurred at the beginning of our era, i.e. about 2,000 years ago. The tops of the volcano are connected at an altitude of about 5,300 m. At an altitude of more than 4 km, the slopes of the mountain become steep, in these places there is a high probability of an avalanche.
The first documented ascent of the eastern summit of Everest took place in 1829. One of the most famous explorers of Elbrus was Ahiya Sottayev, who climbed it 9 times, the last ascent was at the age of 121 years.
The Caucasus is an attractive place for those who love skiing. In Elbrus region there are many resorts with paved trails and lifts. Some athletes climb helicopters to the tops of the mountains and descend on pristine snow.