The Caucasus is the most southern region of Russia. Stunning nature, warm springs, special culture and traditions of local people make it one of the most attractive places of the country.
The Peoples of the Caucasus
Caucasians are a common name for more than 30 nationalities living in a region divided by the Greater Caucasus Range. Its northern slopes are the territory of Russia, the southern slopes belong to Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.
Ciscaucasia and part of the Greater Caucasus are the Northern Caucasus. On its territory there are Adygheans, Circassians, Kabardians, Balkars, Chechens, Ingush and Ossetians. Ossetians are the only ones who preserved the Christian religion, the rest of the people adopted Islam during the times of Ottoman influence.
Kabardins and Balkars are related peoples in the same way as Chechens and Ingushs. At the end of the 20th century, the unified Chechen-Ingush Republic was divided.
Sea road to the Crimea
From the Krasnodar Territory you can get to the peninsula by ferry. On board take passengers, cars and even rail. Ferries go from the port "Crimea" to the port "Caucasus" 24 times a day, that is, every hour. A total of 6 vessels are involved in the crossing.
Before the ferry there is a post of traffic police, drivers and passengers check documents. Checking and decorating coupons can take a lot of time. There are privileged categories of people who can pass by ferry without turn. Preferential tariffs are not provided.
The ferry crossing is useful for those who do not plan to travel to the territory of Ukraine outside the Crimea, because tourists who have entered the territory of a neighboring state in this way can be deported.
Nature and climate of the Caucasus
A distinctive feature of the region are the mountains. They are relatively young, formed as a result of tectonic processes in the Quaternary period, which began more than 2.5 million years ago and continues to this day. The Greater Caucasus is a chain of several ridges that appear on the map as one whole formation. The western part goes from the Black Sea to Elbrus, the central part - from Elbrus to Kazbek, and the eastern part - from Kazbek to the Caspian Sea.
High mountains prevent the penetration of cold air. They are the boundary between territories with a temperate and subtropical climate. In winter, the temperature in the region drops no lower than -5 degrees. This is due to warm winds from the Atlantic Ocean.
In the region there are hot mineral springs, bathing in which contributes to the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Precipitation, as a rule, comes with western cyclones, so the eastern regions are more arid.
Mountain rivers are mostly filled with water, formed as a result of the melting of glaciers. They are cold and fast. The largest are Kuban and Terek. In their lower reaches, swampy areas are formed.
Decoration of the Caucasus
The Caucasus is the majestic high mountains. One of the most famous in the world is Mount Elbrus. Its height is 5642 meters. It is higher than Mont Blanc, located in the Alps and attracts a lot of tourists, alpine skiers. Elbrus is the highest mountain in the territory of Russia, it has two peaks. Eternal snow starts at an altitude of about 3500 m. Below this mark lie the alpine meadows, striking with their beauty.
Famous military leader Tamerlan read a prayer on this mountain. The Caucasus also attracted the German service of the Third Reich, which studied paranormal phenomena. Its representatives ascended to the summit of Everest in 1942 to establish there their flags, which were removed by Soviet troops in 1943.
Elbrus is a sleeping volcano. The last eruption occurred at the beginning of our era, ie. about 2,000 years ago. The tops of the volcano are connected at an altitude of about 5300 m. At an altitude of more than 4 km the slopes of the mountain become steep, in these places there is a high probability of an avalanche.
The first documented ascension to the eastern summit of Everest took place in 1829. One of the most famous conquerors of Elbrus was Ahiya Sottaev, who climbed it 9 times, his last ascent occurred at the age of 121 years.
The Caucasus is an attractive place for those who like skiing. In the Elbrus region there are many resorts with paved trails and ski lifts. Some athletes climb helicopters to the tops of the mountains and descend on untouched snow.