Melt lead easily. This can be done even at home using a suitable thin-walled steel or even aluminum container. The melting point of lead is low. To achieve it, enough that the burner flame is gas or electric stoves.
The distribution in the total mass of the earth's crust is 0.0016%. This seems to be small, but if we compare this indicator with our closest neighbors in the table of chemical elements - mercury, gold, bismuth, then lead takes a much higher place. The main source of raw materials for its production is polymetallic sulphide ores.
In addition to the low melting point of lead, it is still one of the softest metals. It can be scratched with a fingernail, cut with a knife. It is quite flexible, flattening with a hammer. The material is well suited for melting and casting, even at home.
Technological properties: what is the melting point of lead?
It melts at 327,46 °C (600,61 K). Maintains a high technological injection properties in the range of 400 to 450 °C. the boiling point of lead is equal to 1751 °C (2022-K). Oxide film required for corrosion protection melts only at 850 °C. Such high temperatures substantially in excess of the melting regime, complicates the process of welding of lead in alloys with other metals. Besides at 700 °C the volatility of lead increases markedly.
Cold material can be processed well. It can be rolled into thin foil. At pressures from 2 t / cm², crushed lead is compressed to form a monolithic mass. The wire from it is obtained not by the method of casting, but by forcing hard material through a die plate. Low tensile strength makes it impossible to use conventional drawing for these purposes.
At what temperature does lead melt in composition with other metals? This will depend on the composition of the alloy and the ratio of metals in it. With one material, the temperature can rise, while with others it can be much lower. For example, solder, based on tin (64%) and lead (36%), melts at 180-200 ° С.
Home Melting: Preparation
It is necessary to choose a suitable container, it is desirable that the handle was made of heat-resistant material. Well for this purpose, suitable old kettle, coffee-maker or other disused kitchen utensils with comfortable handle. It is possible to melt the material in the old cast iron cookware, and to fill use a deep spoon with a long handle.
In the extreme case can fit and tin can. But there can not do without pliers. They can remove the heated dishes from the heat and pour the molten lead into the prepared mold. But this should be done very carefully. For convenience, on the rim of the tin is better to make a groove. Then the molten metal will pour out in a thin stream without streaks and exactly in the right place. A place to grip pliers should also be equipped in advance so as not to produce unnecessary manipulations with dishes and heated metal.
Prepared and the most refined of impurities lead, where possible, crushed into small pieces. So it will melt faster. Capacity is mounted securely on the burner and warmed up. This is done to burnout with the surface of the water and undesirable impurities.
The process of melting and pouring
You should not load the entire volume of the prepared material into the dishes at once. Only the bottom layer of lead scrap will be in contact with the heated surface, and all that is on top will only take on the heat and slow down the heating. It is better to first melt a few pieces to form a puddle, and then gradually add new portions of metal to it. In this case, the area of the heating surface increases.
After melting of the entire volume of material with a metal spatula or spoon with a long handle from the melt it is necessary to remove the layer of slag, impurities and debris. The fill should be done in a heated form. A relatively low melting point of lead involves its rapid solidification. This is especially noticeable in cold form. The material loses its fluidity, visibly thickens, the melt does not fill the form, the quality of the castings deteriorates.
The boiling point of lead is very high (1751 °C), and to achieve it at home impossible. However, the volatility already at 700 °C becomes quite high. With a significant excess of the melting temperature of nearby people may be exposed to the negative effects of the fumes. If there are no significant technological overheating of the melt, it is not necessary to bring it to a reddish hue. It suggests that the melting point of lead was exceeded.
Molten lead in contact with skin can cause severe burns. Drops burn clothing, if it comes into contact with flammable materials, it can cause a fire and, as a result, a fire, so work should be done carefully. Water must not be allowed to enter molten lead. This causes a fountain of silvery splashes, which, if they come into contact with eyes, can cause extremely undesirable effects.
Work in a well-ventilated area or outdoors. Do not neglect personal protective equipment. A respirator or even a cotton-gauze bandage will protect the respiratory tract from lead dust. Small doses of lead in the body may not immediately cause consequences. However, this material has a tendency to accumulate throughout life and cause poisoning if the tolerated doses are exceeded.