Melt lead easily. This can be done even at home using a suitable thin-walled steel or even aluminum container. The melting point of lead is low. To achieve it, enough that the burner flame is gas or electric stoves.
Distribution in the total mass of the earth's crust is 0.0016%. It seems to be a little, but if you compare this indicator with the nearest neighbors on the table of chemical elements - mercury, gold, bismuth, then lead takes a much higher place. The main source of raw materials for its production is polymetallic sulphide ores.
In addition, the melting point of lead is low, it is still one of the softest metals. It can be scratched with a fingernail, cut with a knife. It is flexible enough, it is crushed with a hammer. The material is well suited for melting and casting even at home.
Technological properties: what is the melting point of lead?
It melts at 327,46 °C (600,61 K). Maintains a high technological injection properties in the range of 400 to 450 °C. the boiling point of lead is equal to 1751 °C (2022-K). Oxide film required for corrosion protection melts only at 850 °C. Such high temperatures substantially in excess of the melting regime, complicates the process of welding of lead in alloys with other metals. Besides at 700 °C the volatility of lead increases markedly.
In cold form, the material can be processed very well. It can be rolled into thin foil. At a pressure of 2 t / cm², the crushed lead is compressed to form a monolithic mass. The wire from it is obtained not by casting, but by punching hard material through the die. Small tensile strength does not make it possible to use ordinary drawing for this purpose.
At what temperature does lead lead melting with other metals? This will depend on the composition of the alloy and the ratio of metals in it. With one material, the temperature can rise, while at the same time with other materials it can be much lower. For example, solder, based on tin (64%) and lead (36%), melts at 180-200 ° C.
Melting in the home: preparation
It is necessary to choose a suitable container, it is desirable that the handle was made of heat-resistant material. Well for this purpose, suitable old kettle, coffee-maker or other disused kitchen utensils with comfortable handle. It is possible to melt the material in the old cast iron cookware, and to fill use a deep spoon with a long handle.
In extreme cases, a tin can. But here you can not do without pliers. They can remove hot dishes from the fire and pour molten lead into the prepared form. But this should be done very carefully. For convenience, it is better to make a groove on the rim of the tins. Then the molten metal will pour out in a thin trickle without streaks and exactly in the right place. The place for grasping with pliers should also be pre-equipped in order not to produce unnecessary manipulation of the dishes and the heated metal.
Prepared and the most refined of impurities lead, where possible, crushed into small pieces. So it will melt faster. Capacity is mounted securely on the burner and warmed up. This is done to burnout with the surface of the water and undesirable impurities.
Melting and Filling Process
Do not load the entire volume of prepared material into the dishes at once. Contact with the heated surface will be only the bottom layer of lead scrap, and everything from above will only take away the heat and thereby slow down the heating. It is better to first melt several pieces to form a puddle, and then gradually add new portions of metal to it. In this case, the area of the heating surface increases.
After melting of the entire volume of material with a metal spatula or spoon with a long handle from the melt it is necessary to remove the layer of slag, impurities and debris. The fill should be done in a heated form. A relatively low melting point of lead involves its rapid solidification. This is especially noticeable in cold form. The material loses its fluidity, visibly thickens, the melt does not fill the form, the quality of the castings deteriorates.
The boiling point of lead is very high (1751 °C), and to achieve it at home impossible. However, the volatility already at 700 °C becomes quite high. With a significant excess of the melting temperature of nearby people may be exposed to the negative effects of the fumes. If there are no significant technological overheating of the melt, it is not necessary to bring it to a reddish hue. It suggests that the melting point of lead was exceeded.
Molten lead when ingested can cause severe burns. His drops burn clothing, if they get into flammable materials, they can cause a fire and, as a result, a fire, so work should be done carefully. It is inadmissible to get water into molten lead. This causes a fountain of silvery sprays, which, if ingested, can cause extremely undesirable consequences.
Work should be in a well-ventilated room or on the street. Do not neglect personal protective equipment. A respirator or even a cotton-gauze dressing will protect the respiratory tract from lead dust. Small doses of lead in the body, perhaps, immediately and will not cause consequences. However, this material tends to accumulate throughout life and cause poisoning when the permissible dose is exceeded.