How to slaughter a pig? This question worries many novice farmers. There are several ways. Everyone can choose the most suitable for themselves.
Before slaughtering a pig, you need to choose the optimal time. Experts advise to conduct the face in the fall. The weather is bad, and closer to winter the pig ceases to gain weight due to cold weather. In the summer, slaughter is not recommended. First, the abundance of flies and heat can spoil the meat. Secondly, animals are actively growing in summer. Therefore, it is worth thinking about expediency. However, if the farmer still decided on summer slaughter, this should be done early in the morning with maximum coolness. It is advisable to do it quickly.
Also, before slaughtering a pig, it is necessary to carry out preparatory work. The first thing to do for this is to stop feeding the animal. Preferably 12 hours before slaughter. Water in the presence of automatic drinkers must stop serving in 3 hours. It is necessary to cleanse the stomach of a pig. The quality of meat with this method increases. As an added benefit, it can be noted that the animal is easier to lure away with bait. A full pig is unlikely to come out voluntarily, so problems will arise.
Before slaughter it is better to wash it still alive with warm water. Experienced farmers hose. This reduces the number of bacteria on the body and prolongs the shelf life of meat. However, if the pig's body is clean, then this process is optional.
If you have to sell meat on the market or donate it to collectors, do not forget to get the relevant certificates: from a veterinarian and from local authorities. The first must testify that the meat is safe, the second - that it is not stolen. However, this is not necessary if the farmer decided to stab the animal for their own needs.
What is needed for slaughter
Can not be slaughtered in the pigsty. It is necessary to use only a special, treated with sawdust, platform for this.
Before slaughtering a pig, you must prepare the inventory. For this you will need:
- Lots of warm and hot water.
- Sharp knife.
- Sledgehammer (with the appropriate method of slaughtering).
- Straw for firing (if desired) so that there is no unpleasant smell of gas when using a lamp.
A knife for slaughtering needs a sharp, stiff. It is best to use long (about 20 cm) and wide (about 2 cm). This will make it possible to reach the heart, and the wound will be wide for increased bleeding.
You will also need clean containers, hooks for hanging. The surface for cutting is best to use stainless steel.
You can not allow the stress of the pig: scare her, beat, etc. It happens that the animal is frightened by extraneous noises, such as a dog barking. Therefore, it is better to eliminate them in advance. If the animal still refuses to go out, then you can throw a bag over his head and pull it backwards. Before slaughtering a pig, on the spot of slaughter you can put its trough with food. This will avoid the stress caused by the change of atmosphere.
How to slaughter a pig: choose the method
Most often used two methods of slaughter at home: in the neck and in the heart. Some farmers, especially beginners, cannot kill an animal in the heart from the first time, and slaughtering the neck does not quickly kill them at all. Therefore, before slaughter, it is recommended to stun a pig with a sledgehammer to the frontal part. In the absence of the necessary tools, you can use the ax butt. This is a more humane way for an animal, since it will not suffer from pain, although it is better not to look at it from the faint-hearted.
Slap in the neck
So, let's look at how to slaughter a pig in the neck. For this it is better to use the rope and the crossbar. With this method, the help of three people of average strength is needed. First, you must tie a rope to the hind legs of a live pig. This can be done while eating animals. She will be busy and unlikely to resist. After that, you need to dramatically tighten the animal to the crossbar. Naturally, the pig will begin to resist. This will accelerate her blood circulation. After she calms down (maximum peak), there is a slaughter. Abundant blood circulation eliminates the blood from the carcass as much as possible. The smaller it is, the tastier the meat. This is one of the ways how to slaughter a pig at home. Next, remove the bristles with straw or a burner. Begin to carve. Now let's look at another way: how to slaughter a pig in the heart. This will be discussed further.
Slaughter in the heart
So, how to slaughter a pig in the heart correctly, without unnecessary trouble? To start a pig should be put on the left side, holding the right leg. It will be difficult for one to perform such an operation, so it is better to call someone for help. The knife must be inserted into the cartilaginous fusion at the 3-4th rib. For reliability, you can feel the pulsation, after which you need to sharply plunge the knife into the heart. Of course, before this, it is better to stun an animal with a sledgehammer, but even in an unconscious state it can resist with its legs when it is cut. Therefore, it is not necessary to let the pig go for some time. Until the animal has stopped moving, the knife should not be removed from the heart. This method of slaughter has a drawback: blood enters the chest cavity. Approximately 5-6 minutes will be needed for the carcass to be completely bled.
Novice farmers will have to learn in practice how to slaughter and butcher a pig. The first we have already disassembled in general terms. Of course, it is better to see once than read a hundred times. However, it would not hurt anyone to theoretically find out how this happens. We now turn to the dressing.
Before starting the process it is necessary to lay the carcass on the back. The first step is to cut the skin behind the ears, around the head. After that, from the lower part of the neck, along the line of the nipples, you need to bring the incision to the anus. Around him first thing and take off the skin. When removing it, you need to pull it towards yourself, trying not to make slots. The head is not separated immediately. In the line of the abdomen you need to make a cut to remove the insides.It is necessary to work carefully with the intestines, try not to tear it, otherwise you can stain the meat and clothing. In this case there will be an unpleasant smell.
Next, the carcass without internal organs must be cut into pieces.
Meat should be held in a cold place for at least two days. We do not recommend to use fresh meat from animals, as the postmortem state comes immediately after slaughter. The fibers are strongly compressed. Such meat is not only not tasty, but also poorly digested. Therefore, it is better that the carcass is ripe in a cool place. Pork is recommended to hold about 5 days. However, at high temperatures it can be spoiled.
Some adhere to the following sequence:
- Cut off the head.
- Cut the "apron" in the peritoneum.
- Chop the sternum in the center.
- Carefully remove the esophagus from the carcass.
- Take out the heart, lungs.
- Carefully reach the intestines.
- Cut off the gallbladder.
- Remove the liver.
- Remove internal fat.
- Remove the kidneys, bladder.
- Washed carcass, organs.
- The carcass is cut into pieces.
Advice to novice farmers
To slaughter pigs was less psychologically sensitive, we advise you to follow a number of simple rules. This is especially true for novice farmers.
The first rule is to immediately treat animals as future meat. You do not need to spend much time with them beyond the necessary minimum: talk to them, give them nicknames, find the unique qualities of animals.
The second rule is not to allow cattle to be friends with children. Children often become attached to all animals. For them, it does not matter whether it is a pig or a goat. They can love all the animals in the yard. To avoid psychological trauma, it is better to immediately protect children.
How much weight should a pig have?
Pigs are best slaughtered at their maximum weight. However, how much should a fed animal weigh at all? An adult pig is considered to be 9-10 months old. Her weight reaches about 100-120 kg. However, it all depends on the breed, diet, temperature. The largest breed is the large white. Boar weight can reach 300-350 kg. Females slightly smaller - 200-250 kg.
However, wild boars Mirgorodskoy breed less than 100 kg. And the maximum weight of Vietnamese pigs does not exceed 140 kg at all. However, it is worth noting that the last net meat in percentage terms more. The information is useful for lovers of bacon. Experienced farmers do not slaughter pigs until they reach maximum weight. The net yield of products depends on this:
- 100 kg - 70-75%.
- 120-140 kg - 77-80%.
- 180 and above - 80-85%.
What is the carcass
The pig, of course, is big. Moreover, the receiving price is quite low. However, why are pork chops very expensive in stores? Its price is three, or even four times higher than the average price of meat. The reason is that each part of the carcass is used differently. In a pig there is a lot of fat, which is cheaper in the market than the average price for pork. From here the price of pure meat rises: bacon, ham, carbonate, etc.
The carcass is divided into parts, each of which is intended for its own purposes:
- Ear, knuckle, head - to jelly.
- Neck, ribs - for kebab, frying.
- The upper part (carbonate) - for delicacies, meat for barbecue.
- Pocherevok (lower part of the abdomen) - for frying.
- Breast - for soup.
- Bonfire - rear above ham - for baking.
- Ham - for frying, roasting, shish kebab.
Some breeds of fat can reach up to 50% of body weight. These carcasses are best sold to suppliers at fixed prices. Meat breeds, in which the amount of fat is minimal, it is better to try to sell yourself. For example, when slaughtering a pig, the weight of a product was 100 kg. Of these, fat - 50 kg. The price of meat - 150 rubles. Salo on the market costs 100 rubles. bacon - 300 rub. Thus, it can be calculated that the separate price of pork for the final consumer will cost:
- (50 x 300) + (50 x 100) = 20 thousand rubles.
At a ratio of 20 kg of fat / 80 kg of meat, we get the final price for the consumer:
- (20 x 100) + (80 x 300) = 26 thousand rubles.
That is, the loss is about 25%. Everyone can make such a calculation on their own, after slaughtering pigs.