How correctly to cut a pig? This question worries many beginning farmers. There are several ways. Everyone can choose the most suitable for themselves.
Before you kill a pig, you must choose the optimal time. Experts advise to carry out slaughter in the autumn. The weather is bad, and closer to winter, the pig ceases to gain weight due to cold weather. In the summer, the slaughter is not recommended. First, the abundance of flies and heat can spoil the meat. Secondly, animals grow actively in summer. Therefore, it is worthwhile to think about expediency. However, if the farmer still decided on a summer slaughter, it should be done early in the morning with maximum coolness. It is advisable to do this quickly.
Preparation for slaughter
Also, before you kill a pig, it is necessary to carry out preparatory work. The first thing you need to do for this is to stop feeding the animal. Preferably 12 hours before slaughter. Water in the presence of automatic drinkers should stop serving for 3 hours. This is necessary to cleanse the stomach of the pig. The quality of meat with this method increases. As an additional advantage, it can be noted that the animal can be lured more easily by bait. A well-fed pig is unlikely to voluntarily leave, so problems will arise.
Before slaughter it is better to wash it still alive with warm water. Experienced farmers poured from a hose. This allows you to reduce the number of bacteria on the body and prolongs the shelf life of meat. However, if the pig's body is clean, then this process is not necessary.
If the meat has to be sold on the market or handed over to the procurers, then do not forget to take the appropriate certificates: from the veterinarian and from the local government. The first is to testify that the meat is safe, the second is that it is not stolen. However, this is not necessary if the farmer decides to slaughter the animal for his own needs.
What is needed for slaughtering
You can not slaughter in a pigsty. Use only special, treated with sawdust, a platform for this.
Before you kill a pig, you must prepare an inventory. To do this, you will need:
- Lots of warm and hot water.
- A sharp knife.
- Sledgehammer (with the appropriate method of slaughtering).
- Straw firing (if desired) so that there is no unpleasant odor of gas when using a lamp.
The knife for the face is needed sharp, not stiff. It is best to use a long (about 20 cm) and a wide (about 2 cm). This will reach the heart, and the wound will be wide for heavy bleeding.
It will also require clean containers, hooks for hanging. The surface for cutting is best used from stainless metal.
It is impossible to tolerate the stress of a pig: frighten it, beat it, etc. It happens that the animal is frightened by extraneous noises, for example, barking a dog. Therefore, it is better to eliminate them beforehand. If the animal still refuses to go out, you can throw a sack over his head and take it out with his back. Before you kill a pig, you can put the trough with food in place of the slaughter. This will avoid the stress caused by a change in the situation.
How to properly cut a pig: choose the method
Most often, two methods of slaughter at home are used: in the neck and in the heart. Some farmers, especially beginners, can not kill an animal in the heart from the very first time, and a neck slaughter does not kill at all. Therefore, before slaughtering, it is recommended to stun the pig with a sledge hammer blowing into the frontal part. In the absence of the necessary tool, you can use the ax ax. This is a more humane way for an animal, since it will not suffer from pain, although it is better not to look nervous from the side.
Slaughter in the neck
So, let's analyze how to kill a pig in the neck. For this, it is better to use ropes and a crossbar. With this method, three people of medium strength are needed. First, to the back legs of a live pig it is necessary to tie a rope. This can be done while eating food to animals. She will be busy and unlikely to resist. After this, sharply tighten the animal to the crossbar. Naturally, the pig will begin to resist. It will disperse its blood circulation. After she calms down (the maximum peak), the slaughter occurs. Abundant blood circulation relieves the carcass from the blood as much as possible. The less it is, the more delicious the meat. This is one way to kill a pig at home. Then remove the stubble with a straw or a burner. Begin to cut. Now let's look at another way: how to stab a pig in the heart. This will be discussed later.
So, how to kill a pig in the heart correctly, without unnecessary hassle? To begin with, the pig should be placed on the left side, holding the right leg. It will be difficult for one to do such an operation, so it's better to call someone to help. The knife should be inserted into the cartilaginous fusion at the 3-4th rib. For reliability, you can feel the pulsation, after which you need to sharply plunge the knife into the heart. Of course, before this it is better to stun an animal with a sledgehammer, but even in an unconscious state it is able to resist legs when it is cut. So you do not have to let go of the pig for a while. While the animal has not stopped moving, the knife should not be taken out of the heart. This method of slaughter has a drawback: the blood enters the chest cavity. Approximately 5-6 minutes will be needed in order to completely exsanguinate the carcass.
Beginning farmers will have to learn in practice how to slaughter and strip a pig. We have already outlined the first in general terms. Of course, it's better to see once than to read a hundred times. However, no one will be prevented from theorizing how this happens. Now let's proceed to the sectioning.
Cutting the carcass
Before the beginning of the process it is necessary to put the carcass on the back. First, the skin is cut behind the ears, around the head. After this, from the lower part of the neck, along the line of the nipples, it is necessary to bring the incision to the anus. Around him first thing and remove the skin. When removing it, you need to pull it back on yourself, trying not to make slits. The head is not separated immediately. On the belly line, you need to make a cut in order to take out the insides.With the intestine it is necessary to work carefully, try not to tear it, otherwise you can stain meat and clothes. In this case there will be an unpleasant smell.
Further, the carcass without internal organs must be cut in parts.
Meat should be kept in a cold place for at least two days. We do not recommend the use of animal paired meat, since there is a posthumous condition immediately after slaughter. The fibers are strongly compressed. Such meat is not only not tasty, but also poorly digested. Therefore, it is better that the carcass ripen in a cool place. Pork is recommended to be held for about 5 days. However, at high temperatures it can be spoiled.
Some follow the following sequence:
- Cut off the head.
- Cut the "apron" in the peritoneum.
- Cut down the center of the sternum.
- Get the esophagus out of the carcase carefully.
- They take out the heart, the lungs.
- Gently remove the intestines.
- Cut out the gallbladder.
- The liver is extracted.
- Remove the inner fat.
- They remove the kidneys, the bladder.
- The carcass is washed out, the organs.
- The carcass is being cut to pieces.
Advice to Beginner Farmers
To slaughter the pigs was less sensitive psychologically, we advise adhering to a number of simple rules. This is especially true for beginning farmers.
The first rule is to immediately treat animals as to future meat. Do not spend a lot of time with them beyond the necessary minimum: talk to them, give them nicknames, find unique qualities of animals.
The second rule is not to allow cattle to be friends with children. Children often become attached to all animals. It does not matter to them whether it's a pig or a goat. They can fall in love with all the animals on the farmstead. In order to avoid psychological trauma, it is better to immediately protect children.
What weight should a pig have?
It is better to slaughter pigs at their maximum weight. However, how much should a fattened animal weigh? The adult pig is considered to be 9-10 months old. Its weight is about 100-120 kg. However, everything depends on the breed, the diet, the temperature regime. The largest breed is a large white breed. The weight of the wild boar can reach 300-350 kg. Females slightly smaller - 200-250 kg.
However, the boars of the Mirgorod breed are less than 100 kg. And the maximum weight of Vietnamese pigs does not exceed 140 kg. However, it should be noted that the last pure meat in percentage terms is more. The information is useful for bacon lovers. Experienced farmers do not cut pigs until they gain maximum weight. The net output of the product depends on this:
- 100 kg - 70-75%.
- 120-140 kg - 77-80%.
- 180 and above - 80-85%.
What does carcass go on?
Of course, the pig is large. And the receiving price is rather low. However, why in stores is very expensive pork carbonate? Its price is three or even four times higher than the average price of meat. The reason is that each part of the carcass is used in different ways. In a pig a lot of fat, which in the market is cheaper than the average price for pork. Hence the price of pure meat: bacon, ham, carb, etc.
The carcass is divided into parts, each of which is intended for its own purposes:
- Ear, shank, head - in the cold.
- Neck, ribs - for shish kebab, frying.
- The top part (carbonate) is for delicacies, meat for barbecue.
- Feet (the lower part of the abdomen) - for frying.
- Breast - for soup.
- Rump - the back part above the ham - for baking.
- Ham - for frying, baking, shish kebab.
In some species, fat can reach up to 50% of body weight. Such carcasses are better to be delivered to procurers at fixed prices. Meat breeds, in which the amount of fat is minimal, it is better to try to sell yourself. For example, at the slaughter of a pig, the weight of the product was 100 kg. Of these, fat is 50 kg. The price of meat is 150 rubles. Salo on the market costs 100 rubles. bacon - 300 rubles. Thus, it can be calculated that the separate price of pork for the end user will cost:
- (50 x 300) + (50 x 100) = 20 thousand rubles.
At a ratio of 20 kg of fat / 80 kg of meat, the final price for the consumer will be:
- (20 x 100) + (80 x 300) = 26 thousand rubles.
That is, losses amount to about 25%. Such counting can be made by everyone, after the slaughter of pigs.