In Russian, some words are united by a common part, in which, in fact, their main meaning is concluded. It is clear that we are now talking about such things as root and singular words.
Further in the article we will consider in detail how you can form a single-root word and how not to confuse it with related or homonymous sound.
What is the principle behind the single root
Words that have a common root are called cognate. And they are united not only by the coincidence of sounds and letters, of which the lexical unit consists, but also by a general meaning.
Let us select, as an example, the single-root word for the noun “peace”: peaceful, reconcile. What did we focus on when building this series? Of course, the meaning of the word "world". This means that all the words in this series will have a general meaning: “no quarrel, war”, and therefore they can be considered one-root.
Consider another example. Let's pick up a single root word to the noun “speed”: soon, rather, acceleration, speed. Everyone knows what speed is - a fast paced one. Please note: all words from the presented single root series, anyway, are related to this meaning.
Why are related words not cognate?
Historically, many words in our language are only related, not one-root. As an example, you can bring the word "bear". Once our ancestors called so clumsy for his ability to find a favorite delicacy. He knew (knew) where honey. So it was formed from two roots one word. But over time, the name "bear" ceased to be one-root with the words "honey" and "know." In modern language, these are related, that is, having a common origin, but not one-root words.
Word form and single-word word
Now, when it became clear which words can be considered one-root, we will consider another mistake. Very common, by the way. This is how you think the difference between singular words and forms of the same word?
In Russian, lexical units, depending on what part of speech they belong to, can vary according to different indicators.
- For example, in nouns (table, table, table, table) the case forms of the word “table” change.
- And among the adjectives: "soft, softer, softest" - the degree of comparison of the word "soft".
- To look, looked, looked, looked - all these forms of the verb “look”, which also cannot be attributed to cognate words.
Remember! Changing the same word is not a series of words with the same root!
What is a homonymous sound
If you need to choose a single-root word, do not make another common mistake, using the same-sounding words as single-root words. What is this about?
For example, the words "water", "water", "water" - the same root. And in the series: "water", "driver", "tap" no such, although they, at first glance, and are similar. But if you talk like we did at the beginning of the article, you can understand: the units of speech that are given have completely different meanings and are not connected in any way with each other lexically. Justify.
A “driver” is one who drives a car. “Water” is liquid. A “challenge” is a refusal of something (to give a challenge). Such words have a homonymous (that is, similar) sound of the roots, but the meaning is completely different, not in any way echoing. This reasoning helps to distinguish them and not to line up with one root.
Words can be different parts of speech
In addition, thinking about which single-root word to choose for a specific example, do not try to focus only on the belonging of a concept to one part of speech. Thus, the series: “snow”, “snowdrop”, “snowfall” consists of singular nouns, but here you can also add the adjectives “snow”, “snow”, and the verb “snowy”.
All these words are close in meaning and have one root - snow - / - snow, therefore they are single-root, though they belong to different parts of speech.
How do cognates form?
For the formation of single-root words in Russian, the prefix and suffix are used. Let's use the prefix to form a series of words with the root -gate-: output, departure, arrival, departure. Now let's do the same with the suffix: find, outgoing, trackman.
And try to pick a single-word word to the word “suffix”. How do you form it? Of course, with the help of the morpheme of the same name: suffix.
In the formation of single-root words, the alternation of sounds in the roots may occur, which leads to variations of the same root. For example, wear - worn. In this pair, there is an alternation of consonants -c- and -sh- in the root, which does not prevent the words from remaining one-root. But in this example: blind - blinding alternates one consonant -n- with the combination -pl-, also leaving these words single-rooted.
And one more nuance. Choosing a single word, do not forget about the possibility of the presence in the roots of the so-called runaway vowels (when alternating with zero sound occurs). For example, in the words with the root -father- (father, father), the letter-- is a runaway vowel. By the way, this morpheme has several more variations: -off- (patronymic), -techech- (fatherland). But all these words are all the same.