In Russian language some words have a common part, which, in fact, concluded their main point. Okay, now that we are talking about such concepts as the root and cognates.
The remainder of this article we will discuss how to form the root word and how not to confuse it with related or homonymous-sounding.
What is the root number
Words that have a common root, called the root. And what unites them is not just a coincidence of sounds and letters, which consists of a lexical unit, but also the overall value.
Let us choose, as an example, the root word to the noun "peace": the peace, to reconcile. We have been building this series? Of course, the meaning of the word "peace." Hence, all the words of this series will have a total value of: "the absence of strife, war" and therefore they can be considered cognate.
Consider one more example. Will pick up the root word to the noun "speed": soon, soon, acceleration, speed. Everyone knows what the speed is fast paced. Please note: all words from the same root of a number is represented, one way or another are associated with this value.
Why related words can not be called the root?
Historically, many words in our language are only related, not the same root. As an example, the word "bear". Once our ancestors called it clumsy for his ability to find their favorite treat. He knew (know) where's the honey. And formed from two roots, one word. But over time, the name "bear" has ceased to be cognate with the words "med" and "to know". In modern language it is related, i.e. having a common origin, but not cognates.
Form words and root word
Now, when it became clear which words can be considered cognate, we consider another error. Very common, by the way. That's how you think, what is the difference between cognate words from the same word?
In the Russian language lexical units, depending on which part of speech they belong to can change according to various indicators.
- For example, nouns (table, table, table, table), change case forms of the word "table".
- And in a series of adjectives: "soft, softer, softest" – the degrees of comparison of the word "soft".
- Watch, watched, watched, watched all forms of the verb "to watch", which also can not be attributed to cognates.
Remember! The same words – this is not a series of single-root words!
What is a homonymous sound
If you need to find the root word don't make another common mistake, using as root the same-sounding words. What are you talking about?
For example, the words "water", "water", "plant" – the same root. Together: "water", "driver", "tap" per se although they, at first glance, and similar. But if we argue as we did in the beginning of the article, it is possible to understand: the units of speech have a completely different meaning and lexically unrelated. Explain.
"Driver" is the one who drives, operates the machine. "Water" is liquid. A "withdrawal" is the surrender of something (to challenge). These words are homonymous (i.e., similar) the sound of the roots, but the meaning are completely different, nothing in common. This argument helps to distinguish them and not to put in a number of cognate.
Cognate words can be different parts of speech
Also, wondering what is the root word to a specific example, don't try to focus only on the concepts belonging to the same part of speech. So, series: "snow", "snowdrop", "snow" consists of cognate nouns, but this also can add adjectives and "snow", "snow", and the verb "MacNeil".
All these words are close in meaning and have the same root -the snow-/-snezh, and therefore are cognate, though different parts of speech.
Formed as cognates
For the formation of cognate words in the Russian language uses the prefix and suffix. Let's with a prefix formed by a number of words with the root -move: exit, departure, arrival, care. Now do the same thing with the suffix: find, outgoing, lineman.
And try to match the root word to the word "suffix". How do you form it? Of course, with the help of the same morpheme: suffix.
In the formation of single-root words may cause alternation of sounds in the roots, which leads to variations of the same root. For example, wear – worn. In this pair there is alternation consonants -C - and –W - root, that does not prevent the words remain the same root. But in this example: blind – blinding alternate single consonant -p - mix -PL-also leaving these words are cognate.
And one more thing. Picking up the root word, do not forget about the possibility of the presence in the roots of the so-called runaway vowels (when there is an alternation with zero sound). For example, words with the root -father (father, father) the letter -e - is fluent vowel. By the way, this morpheme has several variations: -TSS- (first name), the Patriotic (Fatherland). But all these words are cognate.