The study of the topic "Root of the word" falls on the program at the 2nd grade. Children learn to highlight it in the word, pick up examples of the same root.
In order for the student to learn this material well and was able to memorize orthograms in the main morpheme in the future, it is necessary to correctly explain what role this part plays.
The process of memorizing rules, orthograms will also be important. Many teachers, methodologists advise to teach a child from primary school age not only to memorize the text of the rule, but to put it into practice. The great benefit in fast memorization is played by the schemes. The child must read the rule, in the form of a diagram, write down the most important of it. Visual memory, which is developed most of all in school-age children, makes it possible to reproduce and apply what has been learned in practice.
What is a root and what does a word need?
Pupils should clearly know and understand that the root of the word– this is the main morpheme, a common part of related words. That is the main lexical meaning of the word.
It is important to point out that one-root words should not only have a common morpheme, but also denote objects, signs, actions from the same sphere.
For example: say, retell, story, tale, speak. The general part is a tale, and the words mean “speak” or “narrate about something.”
Or: transfer, nasal, skidding, nose bridge - will not be single root, as their common morpheme-nos will give different lexical meanings.
Paired consonants in the root of the word
Having taught children to distinguish correctly the main part of a word, the teacher should emphasize that there are 12 consonant sounds in Russian that form pairs between themselves.
These are: dt, fs, rc, bp, vf, gk - they can all alternate in the root of the word, so it is important not only to memorize them, but also to learn the rules by which you can check the writing of the required letter.
It is possible to determine the correct spelling in the root, if you choose a test version in which a vowel sound will appear after a doubtful letter. For example: frost - frosts, garden - gardens, watermelon - watermelons, walkway - road - these are paired words. At the root of the word after verification, it is easy to put the desired consonant, because everything becomes immediately clear.
But not every root of a word ending in a consonant can be verified in this way. Such exceptions are called vocabulary. For example: anecdote, pharmacy, cosmonaut, train station, zigzag and others.
Variants of exercises to consolidate the material studied
In order for the student to consolidate the knowledge gained, to be able to identify pair words, to find the letter necessary for the test in the root, it is necessary to fix the studied material with the help of exercises.
For weaker students, it is better to fix in the form of a commented letter, explaining all the rules and showing how to select a test word.
For example, you can use the following words for a commented entry:
Slippery - to slide, impudent - impudent, a request - to ask, frost - to freeze, a skirt - a short skirt.
Exercises for strong learners and homework
An individual approach to each student is the key to the success of each teacher. Considering that in every class there are strong and weak children, the teacher can offer work on the cards to a certain group of schoolchildren. The same exercises are recommended for home fastening material.
1. Using only the first syllables of the recorded words, make up a new word and check the dubious consonant, determine the root of the word.
- sleeve, shoe, carousel (shirt - shirt);
- raking, ugly, Karina (mystery - mysterious);
- mole, cotton, porridge (cot - beds).
2. Write down the text and highlight the words in which you can not verify the spelling of paired consonants, but they need to be remembered.
“Alexander always came to school with something tasty: mint gingerbread, donuts and su..kami. I am always going home and putting on the wig .. ki. Early rime on the grass painted unusual patterns. Girls and boys ran across the field in bright and beautiful fu .. caps. We saw how the master made of a big tree .. beautiful and big lo .. ku. Our a. The car was going at high speed, so we all held on to the seats. All the inhabitants of the country were watching how the famous cosmon ... landed on Earth. ”
The paired consonants in the root of the word - this is the basic material that will allow the student in the future to correctly write, quickly check questionable options during dictation.