Daily using glass items, almost no one thinks about what getting this material. How are made sometimes surprising beauty of the interior? How to make glass? Why sunlight can freely penetrate through the window in the room? How certain types of glass do not break even under strong attacks?
The basic material for manufacturing glass is quartz sand. Yes, the same one, which is studded with sandy beaches, which in summer would be pleasant to walk barefoot.
Production begins with glass that is measured on the electronic scales, the smallest amount of quartz is heated to a temperature above 1500 degrees C. the Grains are melted, forming a homogeneous mass. To them in small quantities is added soda ash and limestone. What is the purpose?
Soda ash in this process is a catalyst and makes the sand melt at a lower temperature, about 850 degrees C. This reduces the energy cost of production. But soda is not used without limestone. This fact is simple: the melted sand and soda ash during solidification to form a substance which is readily soluble in water (not the best material for the production of household use). Added to these are magnesium oxide, alumina and boric acid. As well as a number of substances preventing the formation of air bubbles in the mass.
After all the components are brought to a certain temperature, followed by a sharp cooling – it will not allow the grit to return to its original shape.
Crushed quartz (sand) in its natural form contains a small admixture of iron, which gives the finished products in the future slight green tinge. In order for the material turned transparent, add the selenium. This substance gives a reddish tones, but when mixed with iron, glass, the surface is colorless. And what makes glass different shades, and sometimes not even plain, all colors of the rainbow?
To make the color material in the heated mixture is added a metal oxide. Cobalt will give a rich blue paint. Purple shades sparkle with the product, if the manufacturing process to add the manganese and the green will work from a mixture of chromium and iron. Solar yellow suitable oxide of chromium, emerald-green – chromium oxide and copper. Which components are added depends on what the purpose of a glass-manufacturing plant.
The secret strength
The next process after dyeing – crystallization of the mixture. It is also called a homogenizing process. To remove all air bubbles, streaks or other inconsistencies which may affect the quality of the products.
After homogenization the future of glass is delivered to the tank of molten tin with a temperature of about 1000 degrees C. because tin has a higher density, liquid glass mass located on its surface. Where it becomes perfectly smooth, slightly cooled, acquiring a hardness. In the next phase, ground, cooled in the reservoir to 600 degrees C, is moved onto the roller conveyor. Here, based on the rules of how to make glass with a high level of quality, it is until, until the temperature drops to 250 degrees C. the duration of the process due to the need of a gradual uniform cooling to prevent premature cracking.
Unique waste-free production
At the end of the conveyor device is installed that controls the quality of the finished material, and at the slightest flaw in the glass is sent to be melted with fresh cooked mixture. After passing quality control, the finished sheets are cut to the desired format and sent either to the warehouse or to further processing. It all depends on the intended use of the product.
The remains after cutting newly laid in the mixture to be melted. There runs the whole waste material. Based on how to make glass, it is safe to say that it is the production of waste.
Due to its chemical and physical properties, glass is divided according to several criteria:
- for the intended purpose (domestic use, industrial use, construction)
- by type of processing (chemical, mechanical and special technologies)
- surface texture (matte, glossy, coated with various metals, with and without film coating).
Clear division of categories does not exist. In the classification based on the fact what technology and how to make glass. Eventually it may happen layered a surface with machining around the edges or a product with a high level of light pass, cut in the cold way. It is worth noting that some parameter of quality is the level of light pass. Glass does not exist with 100% level for domestic use it is 82%. In high-tech products: microscopes, telescopes, various lenses and precision instruments – this figure is above 90%.