Money is a means of exchange throughout the world. They express the value of the goods. In the old days, this function was performed by various things and objects - from pebbles and shells to furs and precious metals. Today, not only gold or silver is used as a means of exchange, but also government bonds - banknotes. By themselves, they represent no value, but are a legally recognized means of conversion. In this article we will talk about how money is made in Russia and other countries of the world, what materials are used for this, and how much the state costs coinage.
A short digression into the history
The first paper money appeared in China in the 11th century. Debt receipts were made on the dried bark of the mulberry tree. They were sealed with seals and signatures. There is also an opinion that the first "convenient bills", as they were then called, appeared a little earlier in the Tang Dynasty of Sichuan Province. How to make money in China today? Also from the mulberry tree. But the money supply is now guaranteed by the state. The Bank of Stockholm was the first institution to issue banknotes in circulation in 1660. These certificates of deposit to the bearer were equated with coin money. Four years later, the organization went bankrupt, because it could not provide all the presented "bills."
Times are changing: the economic growth is followed by a recession, which is most often accompanied by inflation. There is not enough money in the country. What to do in this case? In times of crisis, various materials were used to make money. So, in 1574 the Dutch issued cardboard coins made from. prayer books. In Alaska in the XIX century, the money made from sealskin was spread. In 1902, a cloth of military uniform was used in Africa. Hyperinflation after World War I led to the fact that the cost of banknotes was higher than their nominal value. The government of Germany was forced to make currency from playing cards, since the production of a gold coin in one crown cost the government a 15-kilogram bundle of paper bills.
How money from paper is made in different countries of the world
Denominations are made of cotton and linen. Their fiber contains less acids, so it wears out more slowly. In the UK, this canvas is soaked in gelatin to increase strength. The term of its "validity" is two years. In Austria, Mexico, Brazil, New Zealand, Israel and Ireland for several years have been using plastic bills made of polypropylene. They are much more difficult to counterfeit because of the large number of holograms. In Bulgaria, banknotes are made from a hybrid of cotton and polymer. In the EU - from cellulose, in the USA - from a mixture of wood and plastic, in Russia - from cotton with the addition of hemp.
The composition of the paper is constantly improving. Modern Russian bills are afraid of fire, but withstand 4 thousand bends and 19 chemical reagents. The story of how money is made in Ukraine is no less interesting. Cotton is the raw material for making hryvnia. It is first bleached, and then brewed. But the story of how money is made in Kazakhstan was greatly struck by the US government. They wanted to use a similar technology to produce a local currency. In the process of making banknotes, a double-sided print, specific colors, holographic elements and a unique numbering system are used. Today, the banknote factory of Kazakhstan is engaged in issuing binary passports, excise stamps, diplomas and other paper products with protective elements.
Coins of Russia
In addition to paper money, coins made of different metals also turn around in Russia. It determines their nominal value. A special alloy of steel clad with nickel (the so-called bimetal) is used to make coins with a face value of 1 and 5 cents. Inexpensive and light steel is the "core", and the plating gives a white tint. Yellow color coins of 10 and 50 cents give brass without any impurities.
A copper alloy with nickel or nickel is used to make metallic money. Since copper itself is red, it is the "core". Until 2010, the largest coin in nominal value was made from a nickel silver disk and a lute ring. Four years ago, metal money, covered with copper by "increasing" electric current - galvanic treatment, appeared in circulation. That's how money makes money at the mint. And now back to the bills and talk about ways to protect them from fakes.
How money is made from the air, or the success of counterfeiters
The recipe for making money is protected by a large number of patents. To create on banknotes such signs as color-changing moire and diving metallized thread, can only 10 states of the world, including the Russian Federation. This we owe to counterfeiters. Their talent led to the fact that banks annually hand over more than 120 thousand counterfeit banknotes. Watermarks, multicolored and magnetic strips, luminous labels, fluorescent printing - all these elements of protection they have long learned to forge. Even microprinting is no longer a problem. Therefore, Gosznak constantly develops new levels of protection. Recently, on the bills there was a paint that changes color from different angles.
Legendary counterfeiter Victor Baranov spent 12 years studying the "craft" for forging bills. The result is an excellent copy of a 25-ruble banknote with the highest level of protection. After the arrest, he not only gave his recipe for the melt of copper, but also drew the attention of Gosznak specialists to repetitive lines on paper money, which are easy to copy.
The realities of today's day
In Russia coins are minted at the Moscow Mint. This is a giant gray 9-storey building the size of a football field. Inside, there are countless corridors and doors that can only be opened with a magnetic badge. In the most important semi-automatic press shop, 750 coins are made per minute. 10 cents are minted from brass, and a 5-ruble coin is made from copper coated with nickel on both sides. Filling machines distribute the products in sacks and seal them.
Here, modern milling machines the size of a cabinet with built-in software make not only coins, but also stamps. The figure for the product is loaded through the control unit, which is located next to the machine. Engravers manually improve the relief of stamps. That's how money is made in Russia today.
Appearance of the ruble
Regardless of the technology of making banknotes, their appearance was constantly changing. Today in circulation there are bills in 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 rubles. On the smallest, a bridge across the Yenisei, the chapel and the HPP of Krasnoyarsk are depicted. The Peter and Paul Fortress, the Rostral Column and the Exchange building are present on a larger denomination. Quadriga Apollo and the building of the Bolshoi Theater of Moscow formed the basis of "hundreds." Monument to Peter the Great, the Solovetsky Monastery of Arkhangelsk, as well as the Church of St. John the Baptist and the monument to Yaroslav the Wise are depicted on banknotes in denominations of 500 and 1000 rubles.
Some of the statistics
In Russia, they always knew how to print money. Qualitatively manufactured bills are expensive to pay. Gosznak issues banknotes for India, Cambodia, Syria, Indonesia and China and five other countries for a decent reward. The revolution of the 90s did not affect the work of the Gosznak factory. There were printed over a hundred billion rubles a day. In 2012, the Russian Federation exported two thousand tons of money. How much is this in money? The weight of one thousandth note is one gram. Then one ton contains one billion rubles.
How much does production cost?
The production of coins does not bring profits. Metal is expensive, and cheaper money. The cost of one coin in five cents, 14 times more than face value even when using the cheapest material. “Color detail” is more expensive. According to official data, in 2013 the government spent 8 billion rubles on the production of money. The nominal value of monetary mass on hands – 5.7 billion rubles From 6.8 trillion of cash 53 million coins. 25% of them with denomination of more than the ruble. Accurate data on the cost of manufacturing paper money. Depending on the level of protection, price of party in a thousand units ranging from 600 to 3000 rubles. If you divide the total mass of the coins by the number of people, it turns out that one person accounts for 40 rubles, and if to take into account to calculate their weight, then each of us must be one kilogram of stuff.
What is made and how to protect the money of Russia, it is useful to know not only for the sake of interest, but also not to fall for the tricks of counterfeiters. On the other hand, the more falsified bills, the more patents for their protection Gosznak offers. And let on all kinds of resources poured by nightingales, telling how they make money from the air, in fact, their own blood can only be earned. And for the production of banknotes, cotton is required.