Money is a medium of exchange all over the world. They express the value of the goods. In the old days, this function was performed by various things and objects - from stones and shells to fur and precious metals. Today, not only gold or silver is used as a medium of exchange, but also government bonds - banknotes. By themselves, they represent no value, but are a legally recognized means of circulation. In this article we will talk about how money is made in Russia and other countries of the world, what materials are used for this and how much money the coinage costs to the state.
A little history
The first paper money appeared in China in the XI century. Debt receipts were made on the dried bark of a mulberry tree. They were sealed with seals and signatures. There is also an opinion that the first “convenient bills”, as they were then called, appeared a little earlier in the Tang dynasty of Sichuan province. How do they make money in China today? Also from the mulberry tree. But the money supply is now guaranteed by the state. The Bank of Stockholm was the first institution to issue banknotes in 1660. These certificates of deposit to bearer were equal to coin money. Four years later, the organization went bankrupt, because it could not provide all the “bills of exchange” presented.
Times change: economic growth is followed by a recession, which is most often accompanied by inflation. There is not enough money in the country. What to do in this case? In times of crisis, various materials were used to make money. So, in 1574 the Dutch released cardboard coins made from. prayer books. In Alaska, in the 19th century, money made of a sealskin was distributed. In 1902, military uniforms were used in Africa. Hyperinflation after the First World War led to the fact that the cost of banknotes was higher than their nominal value. The German government was forced to make currency from playing cards, since the production of a gold coin in one kroner cost the government a 15– kg packet of paper notes.
How to make money from paper in different countries of the world
Bills are made of cotton and flax. Their fiber contains less acids, therefore wears out more slowly. In the UK, such a cloth is soaked in gelatin to increase strength. Its “shelf life” is two years. In Austria, Mexico, Brazil, New Zealand, Israel and Ireland for several years using plastic bills made of polypropylene. They are much more difficult to fake because of the large number of holograms. In Bulgaria, banknotes are made from a hybrid of cotton and polymer. In the EU - from cellulose, in the USA - from a mixture of wood and plastic, in Russia - from cotton with the addition of hemp.
The composition of the paper is constantly being improved. Modern Russian banknotes are afraid of fire, but withstand 4,000 kinks and 19 chemical reagents. The story of how to make money in Ukraine, no less interesting. Cotton is the raw material for the manufacture of the hryvnia. It is first bleached, and then boiled. But the story of how to make money in Kazakhstan, greatly impressed the US government. They wanted to use similar technology to produce local currency. In the process of making banknotes, printing with double-sided imprint, specific colors, holographic elements and a unique numbering system are used. Today, the banknote factory of Kazakhstan is engaged in the release of binary passports, excise stamps, diplomas and other paper products with protective elements.
Coins of Russia
In addition to paper money, coins made of different metals are also wrapped in Russia. It determines their nominal value. A special alloy of steel clad with nickel silver (the so-called bimetal) is used to make coins of 1 and 5 kopecks. Inexpensive and lightweight steel is the “core”, and the plating gives a white tint. Yellow color to coins of 10 and 50 kopecks gives brass without impurities.
An alloy of copper with nickel or nickel silver is used to make metallic money. Since copper itself is red, it is the “core”. Until 2010, the largest coin at face value was made from a nickel silver disc and a lute ring. Four years ago, metallic money covered with copper by “building up” an electric current — galvanic processing — appeared in the back. Here's how to make money in the mint. Now back to the bills and talk about how to protect them from fakes.
How to make money out of thin air, or the success of counterfeiters
The recipe for making money is protected by a large number of patents. Only 10 countries of the world, including the Russian Federation, can create such marks on the bills as signs such as color-changing moire and diving metallized thread. We owe this to counterfeiters. Their talent has led to the fact that banks annually deposit more than 120 thousand counterfeit banknotes. Watermarks, multi-colored and magnetic stripes, luminous tags, fluorescent printing - all these elements of protection they have long learned to forge. Even microprinting is no problem now. Therefore, the state sign is constantly developing new levels of protection. Recently, there was paint on the bills, which changes color at different angles.
Legendary counterfeiter Viktor Baranov spent 12 years studying the “craft” of forging bills. The result is a magnificent copy of a 25 ruble banknote with the highest level of protection. After his arrest, he not only handed over his recipe for melting copper, but also drew the attention of Gosznak specialists to the repeating lines on paper money, which are easy to copy.
The realities of today
In Russia, coins are minted at the Moscow Mint. This is a giant gray 9-story building the size of a football field. Inside - countless corridors and doors that open only with a magnetic pass. In the most important semi-automatic press shop make 750 coins per minute. 10 kopecks are minted from brass, and 5-ruble coin - from copper, covered with nickel on both sides. Filling machines distribute products into bags and seal them.
Here, on modern milling machines of the size of a cabinet with embedded software, not only coins are made, but stamps are also made. The drawing for the product is loaded through the control unit, which is located next to the machine. Engravers manually improve the relief of stamps. Here's how to make money in the Russian Federation today.
Appearance of the ruble
Regardless of the technology of manufacturing banknotes, their appearance is constantly changing. Today there are notes in the turnover of 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 rubles. The smallest one shows the bridge over the Yenisei, the chapel and the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric station. The Peter and Paul Fortress, the Rostral Column and the Stock Exchange building are present on a higher denomination banknote. The Apollo quadriga and the building of the Bolshoi Theater of Moscow formed the basis of the “hundred”. Monument to Peter the Great, the Solovetsky Monastery of Arkhangelsk, as well as the Church of St. John the Baptist and a monument to Yaroslav the Wise, were imprinted on banknotes of 500 and 1000 rubles.
In the Russian Federation always knew how to print money. High-quality bills are expensive to pay. The state sign issues banknotes for India, Cambodia, Syria, Indonesia and China and five more countries for a decent remuneration. The revolution of the 90s did not affect the work of the Gosznak factory. More than one hundred billion rubles were printed there every day. In 2012, the Russian Federation exported two thousand tons of money. How much is this in money? The weight of one thousandth of a bill is one gram. Then there is one billion rubles in one ton.
How much is the production
The production of coins does not bring profits. Metal is expensive, and cheaper money. The cost of one coin in five cents, 14 times more than face value even when using the cheapest material. “Color detail” is more expensive. According to official data, in 2013 the government spent 8 billion rubles on the production of money. The nominal value of monetary mass on hands – 5.7 billion rubles From 6.8 trillion of cash 53 million coins. 25% of them with denomination of more than the ruble. Accurate data on the cost of manufacturing paper money. Depending on the level of protection, price of party in a thousand units ranging from 600 to 3000 rubles. If you divide the total mass of the coins by the number of people, it turns out that one person accounts for 40 rubles, and if to take into account to calculate their weight, then each of us must be one kilogram of stuff.
What it is made of and how it protects the money of Russia, it is useful to know not only for the sake of interest, but also in order not to fall for the tricks of counterfeiters. On the other hand, the more often counterfeit bills, the more patents the Gosznak offers to protect them. And let them fill with all kinds of resources with nightingales, telling how they make money out of thin air, in fact, you can only earn your hard-earned money. And for the production of banknotes requires cotton.