"Merkava-4" and his three previous modifications came to light thanks to the legendary Israeli General Yisrael Tal tanker. For his whole career he fought in the different parts, and headed the officer training. Analyzing battles during the six day war and the Sinai campaign, in which he participated, he realized that no one in service of his country tank does not meet the requirements of the Israeli armored doctrine. In this regard, tal came to the conclusion about the necessity of building a fundamentally new combat vehicle. The main requirement for it was in full accordance with the wishes and the military experience of the Israeli soldiers, and the theater of military operations. As a result, later he was able to translate into reality his plan. In addition, he became the founder of the IDF armored troops, who, under the leadership of the man achieved the most significant victories in all wars in which took part of Israel. It is not surprising that the portrait of General tal posted in the center of the U.S. armored forces (hall of the Great tank commanders) to Fort Knox (USA).
In each new generation of "Merkava" Israeli engineers embody the newest ideas of world of tank. In particular, over time, the body began to be manufactured as a single casting, and armor – mounted on specially designed for this bolting. The latest version of machine is equipped with a fully computerized control system. It is developed on technology of Israeli constructors and has no analogues all over the world. It should be noted that the principle of active armor for the first time on the planet you were incarnated on this model. With pipelines already descended four generations. Tank "Merkava-4", the characteristics of which are described in more detail below, was adopted by the Israeli army after a series of tests in 2004.
Layout: a fundamental difference from analogs
The layout of the machine is fundamentally different from all, built on the classical scheme of the American and European counterparts. In the front it is a managerial office in the center fighting compartment and rear engine compartment section. Engine model, "Merkava-4" is at the front, thus playing the role of additional protection for crew members, because the front part takes most of the shells.
The car has received the updated tower, which is equipped with all new armor modules on all sides (forehead, sides and roof). In this regard, the designers had to make the commander's hatch is thicker and provide it with an electronic mechanism to open and close. Luke the loader was removed altogether. In connection with this tower differs in a stepped shape. On the right Board mounted machine gun, from which the commander can conduct remote fire at 360 degrees. On the top of the magazine smoke grenade launchers.
Israeli tank "Merkava-4" is equipped with 120-mm smoothbore gun. Due to a number of improvements now she is able to withstand the high pressure that allows to apply powerful high-explosive shells. Their peculiarity lies in the fact that in the charging gun barrel is programming depending on the required task. The efficiency of fire significantly increases the integral insulating housing, which, among other things, reduces the wear of the barrel. With the gun paired machine gun (7.62 mm). The regular one is a 60-millimeter mortar of the new design.
Behind the armored wall mounted automatic loader guns with electric drum on ten shots, which he automatically passes to the charging tank. The remaining 38 rounds Packed in a protective container to prevent the explosion inside the hull or turret of the tank "Merkava-4."
The fire control system boasts the ability to auto-tracking purposes. These include the advanced television and thermal imaging channels. Independent stabilization sights have the crew commander and gunner.
The engine and transmission
Now a few words about the engine mounted on an Israeli tank "Merkava-4." Characteristics of the power plant is sushestvenno differ from motors of other such machines. The engine power of 1500 horsepower. The designers have improved massively and overall performance of the unit, parameters of power and fuel efficiency. The developers have improved the turbocharger system, increased the intensity of oil and liquid-cooled pistons. In the power supply system used individual fuel pump with adjustable fuel supply. The motor operates smoothly in terms of any rolls. This was achieved largely through the use of car oil pan with new design and extra flat oil tank. Engine management is carried out through a computer that provides the driver all necessary information through the monitor. Not to mention a five-speed automatic, hydromechanical transmission model hydrostatic turning mechanism. It is supplied by the German company "Renk".
This proud Israeli engineers believe the system of active protection of the tank "Merkava-4", the characteristics of which many of the world's experts after the appearance of the model called a revolution in the protection of armored vehicles. This is not surprising, because the machine is able to detect, track and destroy the most modern anti-tank missiles from great distances without causing herself any damage. This system is made by two Israeli companies and is called "Trophy". In fairness it should be noted that something similar in the eighties of the last century was used in Soviet tanks. Some sources claim that "Trophy" is a modified version of those systems.
Other features and systems
The mass of the model "Merkava-4" is 65 tons. Machine size length, width and height respectively equal 7970х3720х2660 mm. the crew included four persons. The tank is capable of speeds of 65 km/h and a full tank is enough for about 500 kilometers.
To prevent the defeat of the commander of the crew during the fighting, the developers have provided inside a special tower for it. The housings are equipped with four cameras that output the image to the display driver, thus helping him to manage. Excellent visibility is provided in both light and dark. Tank "Merkava-4", among other things, equipped with automatic fire extinguishing system. On the tower installed the chain with the balls, which serve as protection for the lower part of the RPG grenades. To facilitate the driver in the process of maneuvering in narrow places, on the body mounted marker pins.
The models of the series "Merkava" perfectly proved themselves during military operation of Israel in Lebanon. Then lost was only five tanks, and almost all damaged vehicles after repair back in operation. This is further proof of their high efficiency. The latest generation model can perfectly cope with the rocket threat. In conclusion, it is impossible not to focus on the fact that it embodies the concept of round-the-clock use of the tank, which space is provided to accommodate two crews, one of which can rest at a time while the other is working.