According to the latest scientific discoveries, man is the most complex open biological system that is managed biocolloidal a computer — brain and spinal cord, capable of self-organization and reproduction with strong adaptive function in relation to rapidly changing environmental conditions. To answer the question, what is man, we need scientific information from such areas of knowledge as chemistry, Cytology and anatomy.
The chemical composition of the human body
What is in man, from the point of view of chemistry? To answer the question is quite easy if you have basic knowledge of this school subject. In the textbooks was described that a person is a collection of chemical compounds, which include biopolymers: proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, but also lipids, carbohydrates and mineral salts. Water — H2 O - occupies a special place in the body, and how many people are composed of liquid, we consider a little lower.
Thus, the nucleic acid formed from DNA and RNA associated with protein molecules, and are responsible for investigating the characteristics inherent in both the cell and the organism as a whole. Of them formed a karyotype — collection of chromosomes that is unique for each species. The man in the nuclei of somatic cells in normal 46 chromosomes, in germ — 23 units.
Proteins perform several important functions in the body. For example, actin and myosin provide for muscle fibers, hemoglobin transportorul oxygen, insulin regulates the level of glucose in the blood, and immunoglobulins provide protection against pathogens. Lipids, which include fats and steroids are an important part of the organic content of cells and tissues. They can form complexes with proteins and carbohydrates, known as glycoproteins and lipoproteins.
The mineral composition of the body
In human cells there is approximately 70 chemical elements, but only 24 of them are found in almost all organs and tissues. The four most important called organic is nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. They play a major role in human life. Followed by 10 macronutrients, which include sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, etc. Microelements, such as copper, boron and manganese, although present in the form of hundredths of a percent, it is nevertheless very important, as part of enzyme systems for the metabolism in the body.
All of the above chemical elements represent the cations and anions of inorganic salts. Their value is high, for example, sodium chloride is a matrix of tissue fluid and blood plasma. Bicarbonates and hydrosulfate calcium is necessary for nerve impulses, muscle contraction and the formation of the human skeleton. Potassium ions can promote normal blood circulation and regulate water-salt balance. Thanks to the above example, we now know what is in man. It turns out that all of these organic and inorganic compounds are the "building" material.
Water — the basis of life
How many people is composed of water, can be obtained using reference books on Cytology. In percentage terms, the amount of fluid in the cells, in comparison with other substances highest. And is it primarily on cellular functions. The more education and more complex its functions, the water content more. So in the brain cells of its up to 85 %, in the molecules of the emerging Bud — over 90% of muscle fibers — about 76 %. Even physiological age can be determined by knowing what is in man: the younger the organism, the higher the liquid content in the tissues and organs. All biochemical reactions occur in the cells is also only in aqueous solutions. Due to the high thermal conductivity and heat capacity, water maintains homeostasis, ie constancy of the internal environment of the body.
Anatomy as a science
The internal structure of a person is studying one of the oldest biological disciplines, which was created by Hippocrates, Galen and Vesalius. It is human anatomy. Muscle that connects bone based skeleton and internal organs located in the body cavity, the scientists see as a single highly organized structure controlled the nervous and endocrine systems. It is the subject of investigation.
Our musculoskeletal system consists of bones, anatomically related groups of skeletal muscles. Man is the only creature on earth, constantly moving vertically. This characteristic is reflected in its internal structure. Human skeleton consisting of a spine, skull, belt, upper and lower extremities and free extremities themselves has a number of devices. Call the main ones:
1. Spine. Has an S-shaped, containing 4 of the bend. They provide cushioning properties and flexibility.
2. The belt of the lower limbs. Represented by the pelvic bones. It is shaped like a bowl that holds the weight of all the internal organs.
3. The foot and its arch. Provide springiness for walking.
4. The brain section of the skull. Due to the development of the brain prevails over the facial area.
5. Upper limbs - hands. Exempt from the function of movement, capable of complex labor operations.
Thus, in the process of evolutionary development of all parts of the human skeleton has undergone major changes, called in biology aromorphoses. They are forever separated man from his closest anatomical and physiological relatives — primates.
However great the value of the human skeleton as a backbone of support, but without the muscles connecting all the departments and setting them in motion, our body would be nothing more than a rigid fixed shell, devoid of even a hint of the primitive move. All major muscle groups — head, neck, trunk, upper and lower extremities — are involved in every second movement of the body and provide instant response to the slightest change in the environment.
In this article, we examined how much a person consists of water, what is the mineral and chemical composition of his body. In addition, we learned the features of the structure of the body, developed in the process of evolutionary development of anthropogenesis.